டேவிட் லிவிங்ஸ்டன்

mwpag;glhj Mgpupf;fhTf;F toptFj;Jf;nfhLj;jtH

Nltpl; yptpq;];ld;

david livingstone

(1813 - 1873)

md;Gs; mk;kh! ,Njh ,e;jg; gzk; ehd; xU thuj;jpy; rk;ghjpj;jJ vd;W Nltpl; kpf cw;rhfj;NjhL jd; jhapd; kbapy; mtDila rk;gsj;ij vLj;J itj;jhd;. FLk;gj;jpd; tWikia XusT mtDila rk;ghj;jpaj;jhy; Fiwf;f KbfpwJ vd;W mtd; czHr;rp trg;gl;lhd;. ,e;jg; gzj;ij itj;J vd;d nra;ag;Nghfpwha; Nltpl; vd;W mtd; jha; Nfl;f> mk;kh ePq;fs; mDkjpj;jhy; ,yj;jPd; nkhopapd; ,yf;fzg; Gj;jfk; thq;f tpUk;GfpNwd; vd;W epjhdkha; gjpyspj;jhd;. mtDf;F gbf;fNtz;Lk; vd;W mj;jid MHtk; ,Ue;jJ. mdhy; tWik mtDf;F fy;tp fw;Fk; tha;g;ig kWj;Jtpl;lJ.

Muk;g tho;f;if

1813k; Mz;L khHr; khjk; gj;njhd;gjhk; jpfjp Nltpl; yptpq;];ld; ];nfhl;yhe;J Njrj;jpy; gpwe;jhd;. mtDila ngw;NwhH kpfTk; Viofs;. Mdhy; cz;ikf; fpwp];jtHfs;. Foe;ijg; gUtj;jpy; Nltpl; fpwp];jt xOf;fq;fisg; ngw;NwhuplNk fw;Wf;nfhz;lhd;. xd;gJ tajpdpNyNa Ntjhfkj;ij kpff; fUj;NjhL gbf;fyhdhd;. E}w;Wg;gj;njhd;gjhk; rq;fPjk; KOtJk; mg;NghJ mtdhy; kdg;ghlkhfr; nrhy;yKbAk;. kpFe;j tWikapd; fhuzkhf mtd; gs;spf;Fr; nrd;W fy;tp fw;fKbatpy;iy. gj;jhk; tajpy; xU gQ;rhiyapy; Ntiyf;F mkHe;jhd;. mq;F fhiy Mwkzp Kjy; ,uT vl;L kzptiu Ntiynra;aNtz;Lk;. Ntiy nra;Ak;NghJ ,yj;jPd; nkhop Gj;jfj;ijj; jdf;fUfpy; jpwe;Jitj;Jf;nfhz;L gbj;Jf; nfhz;Nl Ntiynra;thd;. tPl;bw;F te;J kpfTk; fisg;gha; ,Ue;jNghjpYk; eL ,uTtiu gbj;Jf;nfhz;bUg;ghd;.

fbd ciog;gpd; gadhf ,yj;jPd; nkhopapy; ed;whfj; NjHr;rp ngw;whd;. mjd;gpd; mwptpaiy fw;f Muk;gpj;jhd;. Miyapy; jpwikAld; gzpahw;wpajhy; gjtp caHTk;> mjpf CjpaKk; mtDf;F fpilj;jd gjtp caHT> Cjpa caHT ,t;tpuz;Lk; mtDf;Ff; fy;tp fw;fj; JizGupe;jd. Nfhilfhyq;fspy; Ntiynra;ATk; FspH fhyq;fspy; fy;tp fw;fTk; trjp fpilj;jJ. fpsh];Nfh gy;fiyf;fofj;jpy; fpNuf;fnkhopiaAk;> kUj;JtKk; fw;W te;jhd;. Nfhilfhyj;jpy; Ntiynra;J nfhz;Nl ,iwapy; E}y;fisf; fw;Wte;jhd;. fy;tpapy; Nkk;ghL mila mtDf;F ahUila cjtpAk; fpilj;jjpy;iy. mj;jid fbd ciog;Gk;> tho;f;ifj; Jd;gq;fSk; mtDf;Fg; gpw;fhyj;jpy; gzpj;jsj;jpy; ghLfisr; rfpf;f gapw;rpahf mike;jJ.

yptpq;];ld; tpisahl Neuk; ,Ue;jjpy;iy. Mdhy; xt;nthU ehSk; Mw;Nwhukhfr; nry;Yk; ghijapy; jd; tPl;bw;F ele;J nry;tij ,d;gkhf urpj;J kfpOthd;. kPd; gpbg;gjpYk; mtDf;F tpUg;gKz;L. ,aw;if fhl;rpfisf; $He;J ftdpg;ghd;. gwitfs;> gytif g+f;fs;> Fd;Wfs; Mfpaitfisf; ftdpj;J mwpitg; ngUf;fpf; nfhs;thd;. gpuahzj;jpd;NghJ Gj;jfq;fisg; gbj;Jr; nry;tjpy; tpUg;gKilatd;. vy;yhtw;wpw;Fk; Ntjhfkj;ij thrpj;J jpahdpg;gjpy; mjpfg; gw;Wilatd;. ,t;tpjk; Ntjhfkj;ij vy;yhtw;iwAk; tpl Nerpj;J> mtDila gpw;fhy tho;f;ifapy; ngupJk; cjtpw;W. NtjhfkNk mtDila filrp ehl;fspy; mtDf;F ,izaw;w Jizaha; ,Ue;jJ.

Mgpupf;fh ehl;bw;F miog;G

yptpq;];ld; mtUila ,UgjhtJ tajpy; fpwp];Jitj; jd; nrhe;j ,ul;rfuhf Vw;Wf;nfhz;L> may;ehLfspy; kprdwpahfr; nry;yj; jPHkhdpj;jhH. xU nIHkhdpa kprdwp kUj;Jtk; njupe;j NjtCopaH Njit vd;W yptpq;];lDf;Ff; fbjk; vOjpdhH. kUj;Jtg; gzpiar; rPd ehl;by; nra;a mioj;jpUe;jhH. mjdhy; yptpq;];ld; jd; kUj;Jtg;gbg;ig Kbj;jJk; rPd ehl;bw;Fr kprdwpahfr; nry;y KbntLj;jhH. flTNsh mtUf;fhf NtW jpl;lq;fis itj;jpUe;jhH. ehk; ek;Kila nray; jpl;lq;fis flTs; fuj;jpy; xg;gilf;Fk;NghJ ek; tpUg;gk; epiwNtwhJ NghapDk; fHj;jupd; rpj;jk; jtwhJ epiwNtWk;. rPd Njrj;jpy; cs;ehl;L Aj;jk; eilngw;wikahy; yptpq;];ld; rPdhtpw;Fg; NghtJ jilahapw;W.

fHj;jUila top elj;JjYf;fhff; fhj;jpUf;Fk; NghJ> uhgHl; nkhgl; vd;Dk; Mg;gpupf;f kprdwp xUtH ,yz;ld; efupy; Mgpupf;f ehl;bd; Njitfisf; Fwpj;Jg; NgrpdhH. mtH nrhd;djhtJ: Mgpupf;f ehl;by; Mapuf;fzf;fhd fpuhkq;fspy; Gif kz;lyj;ij ehd; ghHj;Njd;. mtHfs; flTsw;wtHfs;. fpwp];Jit mwpahjtHfs;. cyfpy; ek;gpf;ifaw;wtHfs;. ,e;jg; Ngr;R yptpq;];ld; cs;sj;jpy; fpupia nra;J. mjdhy; Mgpupf;fh ehl;bw;Fg; Nghfj; jPHkhdpj;jhH. fg;gy; gpuahzj;jpd;NghJ el;rj;jpuq;fisf; fzpj;J topfz;Lgpbg;gJ vg;gb vd;w fiyif; fw;Wf;nfhz;lhH. njd;Mgpupf;f ehl;bd; Nfg; lTd; efH te;J ,wq;fpaJk; thd rh];jpuk; fw;Wf;nfhz;lhH. ,Uz;l fhLfspy; mtH gpw;fhyj;jpy; gpuahzk; nra;a Neupl;lNghJ> top fz;L gpbf;f thdrh];jpu gapw;rp mtUf;F kfpTk; gpuNahIdkhf ,Ue;jJ.

,Uz;l fz;lj;jpy; Nltpl; yptpq;];ld;

Nfg; lTd; efupy; ,Ue;J vUJfs; ,Of;Fk; $z;L tz;bapy; vOE}W iky;fs; gpuahzk; nra;J FUkhd; vd;w ,lj;ijaile;jhH. mq;Fjhd; uhgHl; nkhgl; gzpahw;wpf;nfhz;bUe;jhH. mtUld; jq;fpapUf;Fk;NghJ> flTs; ngupanjhU jpUg;gzpia Mgpupf;f ehl;by; mtH nra;a tpUk;Gtjhff; fz;Lnfhz;lhH. Mgpupf;f ehl;bd; kj;jpa gpuNjrj;jpy; gpuNtrpf;fTk;> mij RtpNrrj;jpw;Fj; jpwe;JtplTk; jPHkhdpj;jhH. mJtiu xUtUk; clnry;yhj gFjpia fpwp];Jtpd; ew;nra;jpf;nfd;W nrd;W mila Mty; nfhz;lhH. ,Jtiu ve;j kdpjDk; nra;jpuhj ngUk;gzpia mtH nra;Ntz;Lnkd;W flts; mtiu mioj;jpUf;fpwhH vd;W g+uzkha; ek;gpdhH. vz;zw;w Mgpupf;f ,dkf;fs; kj;jpagFjpapy; trpf;fpwhHfs;. mtHfSf;F fpwp];Jtpd; ew;nra;jp nrhy;yg;gltpy;iy. RtpNrrj;jpw;fhf nry;yKbahj cl;gFjpfis jhNk nrd;wila jPHkhdpj;jhH.

rpq;fj;ij Ntl;ilahLjy;

Nkhgl;rh vd;w kpf mofhd gs;sj;jhf;Fg; gpuNjrj;jpy; %d;W Mz;Lfs; jq;fpg; gzpGupa njupe;J nfhz;lhH. mq;fpUf;Fk;NghJ Nkup nkhgl; vd;gtiuj; jpUzk; nra;Jnfhz;lhH. mts; uhgHl; nkhgl; mtHfspd; Fkhuj;jpahths;. Nkhgl;rh gs;sj;jhf;fpy; rpq;fq;fspd; njhy;iy mjpfkha; ,Ue;jJ. mit kdpjHfisAk; ML> khlfisAk; nfhd;W ,Oj;Jr; nrd;WtpLk;. mq;F tho;e;j kf;fs; yptpq;];ldpd; cjtpia ehbdH. xU rpq;fj;ijf; nfhd;Wtpl;lhy; kw;wait mq;fpUe;J XbtpLk; vd;W yptpq;];ld; mwpe;jpUe;jhH. rpy Mgpupf;f kf;fisj; jd;Dld; mioj;Jf;nfhz;L rpq;fNtl;ilf;Fr; nrd;whH. xU rpq;fj;ijr; RlNt mJ mtHNky; gha;e;J mtH Njhs;gl;iliaf; fpopj;Jtpl;lJ. ,jw;Fs;shf mtUld; nrd;wpUe;j kw;wtHfs; rpq;fj;ijr; Rl;L tPo;j;jpdH. ,e;jf; fhak; kpfTk; Mgj;jhdJk; Rfkhf mjpfehl;fis vLj;Jf;nfhz;ljhfTk; ,Ue;jJ. mtUila fuk; ,jdhy; gytPdg;gl;L CdKw;wJ. Njhs;gl;ilj; jOk;G mtH rhFk;tiu epiyj;jpUe;jJ. ,e;jj; jOk;ig itj;Jj;jhd; mtH kupj;jgpd; mtuJ cliyf; fz;Lgpbf;fKbe;jJ. me;j ,lj;jpy; mNef Mgpupf;fHfs; fpwp];Jit Vw;Wf;nfhz;lhHfs;. yptpq;];lDk; me;j ,lj;jpNyNa mjpf trjpaha; tho;e;jpUf;fyhk;.

tlgFjpia Nehf;fpr; nry;Yjy;

yptpq;];ld; jq;fp gzpGupe;j ,lj;jpy; jz;zPHg; gw;whf;Fiwahy; gQ;rk; Vw;gl;lJ. kw;w kf;fisg; Nghy mtUk; ntl;Lf;fpsp> rpytif jtisfs; Mfpatw;iwg; Grpj;J thoNtz;bapUe;jJ. tlgFjpia Nehf;fpr; nry;y xU Fwpg;gpl;l ,lj;ijj; Njbf;nfhz;bUe;jhH. tlgFjpf;Fr; nry;yNtz;Lkhdhy; kpfg; ngupa thde;jpuj;ijf; flf;fNtz;Lnkd;W Nfs;tpg;gl;lhH. mJtiu xUtUk; mg;ngupa tdhe;juj;ijf; fle;JNghdjpy;iynad;W Nfs;tpg;gl;lhH. Ke;E}W iky;fs; gpuahzk; nra;J mt;tdhe;jpuj;ijf; flf;f KbntLj;jhH. jz;zPH ,y;yhikahy; mNefKiw mtH mtjpf;Fs;shdhH. xUrkak; mq;F tho;e;J te;j kdpjd; xUtd; jPf;Nfhop Kl;ilapy; cs;s jz;zPiu mtUf;Ff; nfhLj;Jf; fhg;ghw;wpdhd;. jPf;Nfhop jd; Kl;ilfis kzypy; Gijj;J itf;Fk;. mNef ehs; gpuahzj;jpw;Fg; gpd; efhkp Vupia te;jile;jhH. ,JNt mtUila Kjy; Gtpapay; fz;Lgpbg;G. me;j Vupiaf; fz;Lgpbj;j Kjy; INuhg;gpaUk; mtNu.

mtH kWgbAk; gpuahzg;gl;L mNef Mgj;Jfisf; fle;J nry;yNtz;bapUe;jJ. %lek;gpf;ifapy; %o;fpf; fple;j Mgpupf;f ,dkf;fSk;> NghaH vdg;gl;l lr;Rf;fhuHfSk; njd; Mgpupf;fhtpy; FbNawpdtHfs;. ,tHfs; mtUf;F mjpf Mgj;ij tpistpj;jdH. NghaHfs; Mgpupf;fHfis mbikfshfg; gpbj;J ntspehLfSf;F Vw;Wkjp nra;J te;jhHfs;. ,ij yptpq;];ld; fz;bj;jhH. xU rkak; mtUila cilfs;> clikfs;> Gj;jfq;fs;> kUe;Jfs; Mfpatw;iw vLj;Jf;nfhz;L Xbtpl;ldH. MdhYk; mtH mtw;iwnay;yhk; nghUl;gLj;jhJ ,d;dy;fisf; fle;J nrd;W Ihk;grp ejpiaf; fz;Lgpbj;jhH. ,J Mgpupf;fhtpy; kj;jpa ghfj;jpy; mike;Js;s ejpahFk;. ,t;tplj;jpYk; mtuhy; jq;fp gzpGupa ,aytpy;iy. ,g;gFjpapy; tprf;fha;r;ry; gutpapUe;jNj mjw;Ff; fhuzk;.

jdpNa gpuahzg;gLjy;

Mgpupf;f ehl;bd; kj;jpa cl;gFjpf;Fs; NkYk; nry;y tpUk;gpdhH. mjdhy; jd; kidtp gps;isfis ,q;fpyhe;J ehl;bw;Fj; jpUg;gpaDg;gptpl;lhH. mtHfshy; mj;jidf; fbdkhd gpuahzj;ij Nkw;nfhs;sKbahJ. fpwp];Jtf;Fg; gzpahw;Wtjpy; jhfKw;wtuha; Mgpupf;f fhLfspy; Eioe;J cl;gFjp kf;fisr; re;jpf;fr; nrd;whH. Mgpupf;f ehl;bd; eLg;gFjpia fpof;F Nkw;fhff; fle;J nry;yj; jPHkhdpj;jhH. ,e;j ePz;l gpuahzk; Mgpupf;fhtpd; g+Nfhs mikg;gpy; Gjpa fz;L gpbg;ghFk;. 1855-1856k; Mz;Lfspy; ,e;jf; fz;L gpbg;G gpuahzj;ij Nkw;nfhz;lhH. Mgpupf;f ,d kf;fs; gyiu ,e;jg; gpuahzj;jpy; mtH re;jpj;jhH. mtHfs; mJtiu nts;is kdpjidf; fz;ljpy;iy. mtUila md;Gk;> mDjhgKk;> kUe;Jr;NritAk; gy Mgpupf;f ,d kf;fis ez;gHfshf;fpw;W. mtHfs; kj;jpapy; mtH jq;fpf; fpwp];Jitg; gpurq;fpj;J kUj;Jtr; NritAk; Gupe;jhH. rpy ,d kf;fs; mtiu tpNuhjpj;jdH. mjdhy; mtH mNefKiw capHjg;gpg; gpiof;f Ntz;bajhapw;W.

mbik tpahghuk;

,e;jg; gpuahzj;jpd;NghJjhd; tpypq;];ld; Mgpupf;fHfis mbikfshf;fp tpw;W njhopy; elj;Jk; gaq;fu epiyikiaf; fz;L gae;jhH. Mg;gpupf;fHfisg; gpbf;f mtHfs; thOk; fpuhkj;ijj; jpBnud;W jhf;fp> kf;fisg; gpbj;J mlf;FthHfs;. Mz;fs;> ngz;fs;> gps;isfs; midtiuAk; mbikfshfg; gpbj;JtpLthHfs;. fpuhkj;ijj; jPf;fpiuahf;fp ePz;l fdj;j kuj;Jz;lfis mtHfSila Njhspd;Nky; itj;J> fOj;ij kuj;NjhL ,izj;J tpLthHfs;. ,t;tpjkhf fhLfspd; topNa elj;jg;gl;L flw;fiu efuq;fspy; mbikfshf tpw;Wg;Nghlg;gLthHfs;. mtHfs; jg;gpg; Nghfhjgb ePz;l ,Uk;Gr; rq;fpypfNshL mj;jid kf;fSk; ,izf;fg;gl;bUg;gH. fhl;bDs; ele;JNghifapy; Neha;tha;g;gLfpwtHfisAk;> fhag;gLfpwtHfisAk; kupf;Fk;gb mq;NfNa tpl;Lr; nry;tH. kdpj vYk;Gf;$Lfs; vq;Fk; rpjwpf;fplf;Fk;. mofpa nropg;ghd Mgpupf;f fpuhkq;fs; jiukl;lkhf;fg;gl;L jPf;fpiuahfp mthe;jukhff; fhzg;gLk;. ,f; Nfhuf;fhl;rpfSk; nfhba mbik tpahghuKk; yptpq;];ld; ,jaj;ij nefpoitj;jJ. ,e;epiyia Mgpupf;fhtpd; MwhjGz; vd tHzpj;Js;shH. ,ij vg;gbahtJ NthuhL mopf;Fk;tiu NghuhLNtd; vd;W jPHkhdpj;jhH. mbik tpahghuf;nfhLikia epWj;jTk; Mgpupf;fhtpd; cl;gFjp guNjrq;fl;F jd;idg; gpd;gw;wptUk; kprdwpfs; nry;yTk; khHf;fq;fis fz;Lgpbf;fNtz;Lnkd cWjpnfhz;lhH. ,Uz;l fz;lj;jpd; mlHe;j fhLfspd; eLNt ghij fz;Lgpbf;fNtz;batHjhNd vd;gJ vd;gJ mtUf;F ed;whfj; njupAk;. gyKiw mtiu mbikfshfg; gpbj;J tpw;gid nra;Ak; tpahghup vd fUjpdH. Mgpupf;f kf;fs; mtiug; gpbj;J Jd;GWj;jTk;> nfhy;yTk; Kaw;rpj;jdH. fHj;jupd; fuk; mw;Gjkha;f; fhg;ghw;wpaJ.

cgj;jputq;fs;

Mgpupf;f ,dj;jiytd; xUtd; xU rkak; yptpq;];ldplk; cq;fSila Njrk; ,e; ew;nra;jpia vq;fSf;F Vd; Kd;dNkNa mwptpf;ftpy;iy? Vd; Kd;NdhHfs; midtUk; rj;jpaj;ij mwpahkNy kupj;Jg;NghdhHfs;. ePH te;J vdf;Fr; nrhd;d ew;nra;jp xd;iwAk; mtHfs; mwpahj epiyapy; kupj;Jtpl;ldNu. ,J vg;gb vd;W Nfl;lhd;. ,tNd Kjy; Kjyhff; fpwp];Jit Vw;Wf;nfhz;ltd;. ,f;Nfs;tp yptpq;];ld; kdjpy; Mokha;g; gjpe;jJ. md;wpypUe;J E}w;Wf;fzf;fhd Mgpupf;f ,d kf;fisj; Njbr; nrd;whH. Eioa Kbahj fhl;Lg; gFjpfspYk; Jupjkhf Kd;Ndwpr; nrd;whH. ,e;jg; gzp Rygkhdjy;y. mtUila cilfs; fpope;J fe;jyhapd. ghjq;fspy; nfhg;Gsq;fSk; ruPuj;jpy; Gz;fSk; fhaq;fSk; Vw;gl;ld. rpyrkak; Mgpupf;fHfs; mtUf;F Mfhuk; tpw;f kWj;JtpLtH. me;jr; rkaq;fspy; gl;bdp fplg;ghH. fpoq;Ffspd; tpijfisj; jpd;W capHtho;e;jhH. jiuapy; gLj;Jwq;FthH. fpwp];Jtpdpkpj;jk; ruPu ghLfSf;Fs;shdhH. Kg;gj;njhUKiw Mgpupf;f tprf;fha;r;ryhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;l mtH cly; vYk;Gk; NjhYkhff; fhl;rpaspj;jJ. fha;r;rypd; fLikahy; kdf;Fog;gKk; kwjpAk; Vw;gLk;. jd;Dld; tUk; egHfspd; ngaiu kwe;JtpLthH. fpoik ehl;fisg; gw;wpa epidT mw;Wg;NghFk;. ,it xd;Wk; mtiur; nraypof;fr; nra;a Kbatpy;iy. Ntjhfkj;ij mbf;fb thrpj;J cw;rhfj;ijAk; MWjiyAk; milthH. ehl;Fwpg;gpy; mtH fpwp];Jtpy; khj;jpuk; ehd; Mwjy; mile;Njd;. vq;Fk; nry;y Maj;jkhAs;Nsd;. Mdhy; mJ Kd;Ndw;wg; ghijahfNt ,Uf;fNtz;Lk; vd;W vOjpdhH. mtH nfhLj;j miw$ty; vd;dntd;why; mbik tpahghupfs; Mgpupf;fhitg; gpbf;f me;ehl;bw;Fs; gpuNtrpf;fKbAnkd;why; fpwp];Jtpd; md;gpdhy; mDg;gg;gl;l kprdwpfs; fpwp];JTf;nfd;W Mgpupf;fiug; gpbf;f me;ehl;il CLUtpr; nry;yhky; ,Ug;ghHfNsh vd;gNj.

yptpq;];ld; caHj;jg;gLjy;

Mgpupf;fhf; fz;lj;jpd; ejpfs;> Vupfs; ,itfspd; fz;Lgpbg;G yptpq;];lidg; Gfo; ngwr; nra;jJ. tpf;Nlhupah ePHtPo;r;rpiaf; fz;L gpbj;jJ ,jpy; Kf;fpakhdJ. ,e;j ePHtPo;r;rpia XirapLk; Nkfk; vd;W tHzpj;Js;sdH Mgpupf;fH. mjd; mUfpy; Mgpupf;fHfs; nry;yNt gae;jdH. mtH ,q;fpyhe;Jf;Fj; jpUk;gpaJk; ngupa mstpy; tuNtw;fg;gl;L ghuhl;lg; ngw;whH. gjpdhW Mz;Lfs; Mgpupf;f fhLfspy; gzp nra;J> xd;gjhapuk; iky;fs; gpuahzj;jpy; <Lgl;ltH. eil gazkhfTk;> glfpYk; ePz;l J}uq;fisf; fle;jtH. Mgpupf;fhtpd; G+Nfhsg; gpuNjrq;fis ntsp cyfpw;F Kjy; Kiwahf mwptpj;jtH ,tH. ,j;jid Muha;r;rpfSf;fhf mtUf;Fj; jq;fg;gjf;fq;fSk;> nfsutg;gl;lq;fSk; toq;fg;gl;ld. jpus; jpushf kf;fs; $l;lk; mtiug; ghHf;fTk;> mtH nrhy;tijf; Nfl;fTk; $bdH. nra;jpj;jhs;fs; mtiug; gw;wpAk; Mgpupf;f ehl;bd; Gjpa fz;Lgpbg;Gfisg; gw;wpAk; vOjpaJ. mtUk; gpuahzf;fl;Liu kw;Wk; Mgpupf;f ehl;by; Gjpa khHf;fq;fisg; gw;wp vOjp Gj;jfkhf ntspapl;lhH.

kWKiw Mgpupf;f ehL nry;Yjy;

murhq;fj;jpd; gpujpepjpahf ,q;fpyhe;J muR mtiu epakpj;jJ. muR mjpfhupahf Mgpupf;f ehL jpUk;gpdhH. Gjpa ,lq;fis MuhaTk; kprdwp Copak; njhlHe;J nra;aTk; murhq;fk; mtUf;F mDkjpaspj;jJ. gy cjtpahsHfs; jd;Dld; ,Ue;jhHfs; vd;whYk; fha;r;rypdhy; mtjpg;gl;L xt;nthUtuhf mtiutpl;Lg; gpupe;J NghapdH. %d;W khjq;fSf;Fg; gpd;dH mtuJ kidtp Gjpagzpj;jsj;jpy; mtUld; Ngha;r; NrHe;jhs;. mtSk; tprf;fha;r;ryhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;L ,we;JNghdhs;. mtis xU kuj;jpd;fPo; Gijj;jdH. mtuJ gpuahz Muk;g ehl;fspNyNa xU ngz; Foe;ij kupj;Jg; Nghdjhy; Mgpupf;f kz;zpy; Gijj;jpUe;jhH. kidtpapd; ,og;G mtUf;F ngupa ,og;ghf ,Ue;jJ. ,e;j kpfg; ngupa ,og;G vd; ,jaj;ijg; Gspe;J tpl;lJ vd;W vOjpdhH. vg;NghJk; mtUila Fwpf;Nfhs; ahnjdpy; cyff; ftiyfs; ,og;Gfs; vJTk; vd; Kd;dhy; cs;s gzpia ek;gpf;ifaw;w epiyapy; tpl;Ltpl vd;id mDkjpf;fkhl;Nld;. vd; Njtdhfpa fpwp];Jtpy; ngydile;J GJ cw;rhfj;NjhL Kd;Ndwpr; nry;Ntd; vd;Wk; vOjpdhH.

Mgpupf;f ehl;by; mtUila capUf;F vg;NghJk; Mgj;Jf;fs; Neupl;l tz;zkhfNt ,Ue;jd. xUKiw fhz;lhkpUfk; Ntfkha; mtiu vjpHj;J ,bj;Jj; js;s Xb te;jJ. mtH mUfpy; te;jJk; rLjpaha; epd;Wtpl;lJ. mtH ek;gpapUe;j Njtd; mtiug; ghJfhj;jhH. ,d;ndhUKiw XH Mgpupf;f vjpup gj;J mb J}uj;jpypUe;J xU <l;bia mtHNky; vwpe;jhd;. mtH fOj;jpd; Xukha; ghae;J nrd;w <l;b kuj;jpy; Fj;jp epd;wJ. vt;tif Mgj;J Neuq;fspYk; fHj;jH mtNuhbUe;jhH. mtH Muk;gpj;j gzp KbAk; tiu NjtDila fuk; mtiu Mr;rupakha; ghjfhj;jJ vd;W Koq;fpdhH. mLj;J te;j ngupa ,og;G ahnjdpy;> gpupl;b]; murhq;fk; mtUila rk;gsj;ij epWj;jptpl;lJ. mbik tpahghuj;jpy; <Lgl;ltHfs; mtUf;F tpNuhjkha;r; nray;g;gl;L murpd; cjtpia epWj;jptpl;ldH. mjdhy; mtH ,q;fpyhe;J jpUk;gNtz;ba epiy Vw;gl;lJ fHj;jH ntF tpiutpy; NtW topapy; ez;gHfs; %ykha; gz cjtp fpilf;fr; nra;jhH. kWKiwAk; Mgpupf;f ehL jpUk;gpa yptpq;];ld; gpd; xUNghJk; ,q;fpyhe;J ehl;bw;F nry;yNtapy;iy.

mtUila filrp fz;Lgpbg;Gfs;

yptpq;];ld; jdJ mWgjhtJ tajpy; Mgpupf;f ehl;bd; kj;jpag;gFjpapy; jk;Kila filrp Muha;r;rpapy; ,wq;fpdhH. taJ nrd;w epiyapy; gy tUl ghLfs; epiwe;j gpuahzq;fs;> nrhe;j Ntiyf;fhuHfspd; cz;ikaw;w jd;ik> mgpupf;f ,d kf;fspd; tpNuhj kdg;ghd;ik> ,itfnsy;yhk; mtUila ,e;jf; filrp gpuahzj;jpy; ntspg;gilahff; fhzg;gl;lJ. mtUf;F tUk; fbjq;fs;> nghUs;fs; ahTk; fsthlg;gl;ld. XH mNugpa tzpfdplk; jk;Kila rpy clikfisf; nfhLj;Jitj;jpUe;jhH. mNefehl;fs; ,tiug; gw;wp mtd; xd;Wk; Nfs;tpg;glhjjhy; mtH clikfisnay;yhk; tpw;Wtpl;lhd;. Fiwe;j Mfhuk; fe;jyhd cil> cilikfnsy;yhk; ,oe;j epiyapy;> tWik kpf;f kdpjdha;> md;gw;w Mgpupf;f kf;fs; kj;jpapy; tho;e;J te;jhH. mtH mDg;Gk; vy;yhf; fbjq;fSk; fpopj;njwpag;gl;ld. ,tiu tpNuhjpj;j mbik tpahghupfs; fbjg;Nghf;Ftuj;ij epWj;jptpl;ldH. kUe;Jfs; mlq;fpa mtuJ ngl;bAk; vLj;Jr; nry;yg;gl;Ltpl;lJ. fha;r;rypdhy; mtH mtjpg;gLk;NghJ kUe;Jfs; ,y;yhjjhy; jk;ikf; Fzg;gLj;jpf;nfhs;sKbatpy;iy. ntsp cyFld; mtUf;fpUe;j vy;yh njhlHGfSk; mWgl;Lg;Nghapd. ntspehLfspy; mtiuj; njupe;j ez;gHfs; mtH kupj;Jtpl;lhnud;Nw vz;zpapUe;jdH. fHj;jH mtiuf; iftpltpy;iy. jpf;fw;wtuha; tpl;LtplTk; ,y;iy.

epA+NahHf; nfuhy;l; vd;w mnkupf;f nra;jpj;jhspd; MrpupaH nfd;wp ];lhd;yp vd;gtiu yptpq;];lidj; Njb fz;L gpbf;Fk;gbahf Mgpupf;f ehl;bw;F mdg;gpdH. gy khjq;fs; ];lhd;yp gpuahzk; nra;J yptpq;];lid cI;Ip vd;w ,lj;jpy; nrd;W re;jpj;jhH. czTg; nghUl;fs; kUe;Jfs; Mfpatw;iw ];lhd;yp jd;Dld; vLj;J te;jpUe;jhH. yptpq;];ld; gykilaTk; Rfk; ngw;W Gj;JapH ngwTk; ];lhd;yp re;jpg;G cjtpw;W. njhlHe;J rpy khjq;fs; ];lhd;yp mtNuhL jq;fpapUe;jhH. me;ehl;fspy; yptpq;];ldpd; fpwp];Jitg; Nghd;w jpahf tho;f;if ];lhd;ypf;F kpfg; ngupa rthyhf mike;jJ. eh];jPfdhd ];lhd;yp yptpq;];lNdhL jq;fpapUe;jjhy; rpwe;j tpRthrpahf khwpdhH. ];lhd;yp tpypq;];lid jd;NdhL mnkupf; Njrj;jpw;F tUk;gb tw;GWj;jpdhH. yptpq;];lidj; jdJ vQ;rpa tho;f;ifia trjpahf thoTk; NgUk; GfOk; ngwTk; mnkupf;f ehl;bw;F tUk;gb mioj;jhH. yptpq;];ld; mtNuhL nry;y kWj;Jtpl;lhH. jd;dplk; xg;gilf;fg;gl;l Njtg;gzp Kw;Wg;ngwhky; jd;dhy; vq;Fk; tuKbahJ vd;W $wptpl;lhH.

yptpq;];ldpd; ,Wjp fhyk;

Xuhz;L fhyk; NkYk; jkJ gazj;jpy; <Lgl;bUe;j yptpq;];ld; ruPu ngytPdj;jhy; mf;fb NrhHTw;whH. mtUld; ,Ue;j rpy cz;ikAs;s Mgpupf;f ez;gHfs; %q;fpy; fk;Gfshy; fl;lg;gl;l njhl;bypy; itj;J mtiuj; J}f;fpr; nrd;wdH. ngUk; kio> FspH Mfpatw;why; mtUila RftPdk; NkYk; mjpfupj;jJ. ehl;Fwpg;gpy; mtuhy; vOjKbatpy;iy. Mgpupf;f ,isQHfs; mtiu md;NghL ftdpj;J te;jdH. xU rpW Fbirapy; itj;J mtiug; guhkupj;jdH. mtUf;fpUe;j rf;jpAk; ngyDk; ehl;fs; nry;yr; nry;y Fiwe;Jtpl;ld. Nk khjj;jpy; xU ehs; fhiy (1873k; Mz;L) mtUila Fbirf;Fs; mtuJ ez;gHfs; gpuNtrpj;jNghJ mtH gLf;ifaUNf Koq;fhypy; epd;wtz;zk; ,Ue;jhH. fuq;fshy; jhf;fg;gl;l mtuJ Kfk; jiyaiz Nky; rha;e;jpUe;jJ. nIgepiyapy; mtuJ capH gpupe;jpUe;jJ. Mgpupf;f ehl;bd; fpwp];Jit mwpahj fzf;fw;w Mj;Jkhf;fSf;fhf nIgpj;Jf;nfhz;Nl guNyhfk; nrd;wile;jhH vd;gjpy; rpWJk; Iakpy;iy. kupf;Fk; jUthapYk; Mgpupf;fHfs; fpwp];Jit Vw;Wf;nfhs;sNtz;Lk; vd;W kd;whbagbNa capHJwe;jhH.

cz;ikAs;s mtuJ Mgpupf;f ez;gHfs; mtUila ,Ujaj;ij vLj;J Mgpupf;f ehl;by; kj;jpag; gFjpapy; Gijj;jdH. mtuJ ruPuj;ijf; nflhj tz;zk; gjk; nra;J njhshapuk; iky;fs; flw;fiug; gFjpf;F Rke;J nrd;wdH. mtuJ cly; ,q;fpyhe;J vLj;Jr;nry;yg;gl;lJ. rpq;fj;jhy; gPWz;l mtuJ Njhs;gl;il jOk;ig itj;Jjhd; mtuJ cly; milahsk; fz;Lnfhs;sg;gl;lJ. ,q;fpyhe;jpd; caHe;j kdpjHfSk;> Gfo;ngw;wtHfSk; mlf;fk; nra;ag;gl;bUe;j nt];l; kpdp];lH mNg vd;Dk; ,lj;jpy; NjrkupahijAld; ey;mlf;fk; nra;ag;gl;lhH. Mapuf;fzf;fpy; kf;fs; nts;sk; Guz;L te;J mtUf;Ff; filrp kupahijiar; nrYj;jpdH. mf;$l;lj;jpy; taJ nrd;w xU kdpjd; gupjhgkhd cilfNshL kdk; cile;J mOJnfhz;bUe;jhd;. mtH Vd; ,g;gb mOfpwhH vd;W Nfl;f Nltpl; yptpq;];lDld; ehDk; xNu fpuhkj;jpy; gpwe;J tsHe;jtHfs;. Xa;T ehs; ghlrhiyapy; xd;whfNt Ntiynra;Njhk;. mtNu flTspd; topiaj; njupe;Jnfhz;L cyfpy; xg;gw;w gzpiar; nra;J Kbj;jhH. ehNdh vd; nrhe;j topiaj; njupe;Jnfhz;L tpUk;gg;glhjtdhf mtkupahijf;Fupatdhf tho;fpNwd;. Njrk; KOtJk; mtiu ,d;W Gfo;e;J kupahij nrYj;JfpwJ. vd;id xUtUk; mwpakhl;lhHfs;. vjpHfhyKk; vdf;F xd;Wkpy;iy. FbfhuDila gpNujf; FopNa vdf;fhff; fhj;jpUf;fpwJ vd;W $wp mOjhH.

fHj;jUila thHj;ij ,JNt. vd;idf; fdk; gz;ZfpwtHfis ehd; fdk; gz;ZNtd;. vd;id mrl;il gz;ZfpwtHfs; fd<dg;gLthHfs; (1.rhK.2:30). yptpq;];ld; fpwp];Jitj; jd; tho;ehspy; fdg;gLj;jp> caHj;jp Copaj;jpd; %yk; mtiu kfpikg;gLj;jpdhH. ,d;iwf;F Mgpupf;fh fz;lj;jpy; E}w;Wf;fzf;fhd kprdwpfs; gzpahw;wpf;nfhz;bUf;fpwhHfs;. vz;zw;w Njthyaq;fspy; Mgpupf;fHfs; fpwp];Jit tzq;fp Muhjpf;fpwhHfs;. ,Uz;l fz;lj;jpd; eLghfkhfpa fhLfs; mlHe;j gpuNjrj;jpy; RtpNrrkhfpa xsp gpufhrpj;Jf;nfhz;bUf;fpwJ. Mgpupf;fHfis mbikfshfg; gpbj;J tpw;Wte;j mbik tpahghuk; mbNahL epwj;jg;gl;Ltpl;lJ. vy;yhtw;wpw;Fk; fhuzk; yptpq;];ld; fpwp];Jtpd; miog;ig Vw;W mtUila rpj;jj;ijr; nra;a fPo;g;gbe;jNj MFk;. fHj;juhy; fl;lg;gl;LtUk; Njt khspifapy; IPtDs;s tpiyNawg; ngw;w fy;yhf gpufhrpf;fpwhH yptpq;];ld; (Livingstone) capUs;s fy; vd;gJ mtuJ ngaH.

பர்த்தலேமேயு சீகன்பால்க்

gHj;jNyNkA rPfd;ghy;f;

ziegenbalk

gHj;jNyNkA rPfd;ghy;f; 1683k; Mz;L [{d; khjk; 23k; Njjp n[Hkdp ehl;by; XgHnysrpl;]; vd;w khtl;lj;jpy; Gy;];dp];l; vd;w fpuhkj;jpy; gpwe;jhH. je;ijapd; ngauhd gHj;jNyNkA rPfd;ghy;f; vd;w ngaNu ,tUf;Fr; R+l;lg;gl;lJ. Mdhy; ,tH rpd;d rPfd;ghy;f; vd;wiof;fg;gl;lhH.

,tUf;F %d;W %j;j rNfhjupfs; cz;L. ,tH ngw;NwhUf;F xNu igadhdjhy; nry;ykhf tsHf;fg;gl;lhH. jha; nja;tgf;jp kpFe;j khJ. ngaH fhjiud;. jhAk; je;ijAk; Neha;nfhz;l clYilatHfshapUe;jjhy; ,UtUk; ruPu ngytPdKilatuhapUe;jhHfs;.

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fhjiudpd; kuzj;jpw;Fr; rpy ehl;fSf;Fg; gpd; je;ij rPfd;ghy;f; fLk; Nehahy; ghjpf;fg;gl;L gLf;ifapyhdhH. rPf;fpuk; kuzk; rk;gtpf;Fk; vd;W mtH mwpe;jpUe;jjhYk;> gps;isfs; rpWtHfshapUe;jikahYk;> kuzj;jpw;Fg; gpd; rtg;ngl;b thq;f my;yYWtH vd vz;zp> xUtuJ cjtpahy; rtg;ngl;b xd;wpid thq;fp tPl;by; itj;jhH. Jd;gk; njhlHe;JtUk; vd;gjw;fpzq;f ,e;epiyapy; xUehs; mtuJ tPL jPg;gpbj;Jf;nfhz;lJ. jPia mizf;f mf;fk;gf;fj;jhH XNlhb te;jdH. gLf;ifapypUe;j je;ij rPfd;ghy;f;if tpiutpy; ntspNa vLj;Jr; nry;y Kaw;rpj;jdH. gLf;ifNahL NrHj;Jr; Rke;J nry;tJ fbdkhapUe;jikahy; NtNwjhtJ fpilf;Fkhntd;W NjbdH. xU rtg;ngl;b mtHfs; fz;fspy; njd;gl;lJ. mjDs;Ns mtiu itj;J NtfNtfkhf ntspNa nfhz;Lte;jdH. ,t;tpjkha; je;ij rPfd;ghy;f; jPapdpd;W jg;Gtpf;fg;gl;lhH. mtiuf; fhg;ghw;wpatHfs; kfpo;r;rpNahL rtg;ngl;bia cw;W Nehf;fpdH. me;Njh! gupjhgk;! mjpy; gHj;jNyhNkAtpd; rlyk; kl;LNkapUe;jJ. capH ,y;iy.

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Kjypy; rPfd;ghy;f; nrhe;j Cupy; tptrhapaha; ,Ue;jhh. rpyehl;fs; Mrpupauha;g; gzp Gupe;jhH. gpd;dH 1703k; Mz;L fy;Nyapy; ,iwapy; fw;whH. ,iwapay; fw;wgpd; gy ,lq;fSf;Fr; nrd;W gpurq;fk; nra;jhH. Njtidg;gw;wp mjpfkha; rpe;jpg;gjpYk; Njt CopaHfsNshL mjpfkha;j; njhlHG nfhs;StjpYk; <Lgl;lhH. ,jdhy; mjpf cw;rhfKk; Gj;JzHr;rpAKilatuhdhH.

fy;Nyapy; gbf;Fk;NghJ xUehs; Mgl; gpiua;j;njhg;l; vd;gtupd; gpurq;fk; ,tiu ntFtha; mirj;jJ. INuhg;ghtpy; E}W Mj;Jkhf;fisf; fpwp];Jtz;il topelj;Jtijtpl gpd;jq;fpa ehl;by; XH Mj;Jkhitf; fpwp];Jtz;il topelj;JtNj kpfr; rpwg;ghdjhFk; vd;w Mgl;gpiua;j; njsg;bd; thHj;ijfs; rPfd;ghy;f;fpd; cs;sj;jpy; gjpe;J fpupia nra;a Muk;gpj;jd. rPfd;ghy;f;fpd; kp\dwp thQ;ir tsHe;jJ. ,tuJ ez;gH GSr;NrhTk; ,tiug; Nghd;W Copa thQ;irAs;stuhapUe;jhH.

,r; rkaj;jpy;jhd; nld;khHf; kd;dH gpunlupf; jdJ muritg; NghjfH lhf;lH yl;f;fd;rplk; rpy CopaHfis mDg;gpj;jUkhW Nfl;bUe;jhH. nld;khHf;fpy; CopaH gQ;rk; epytpjhy; mtH nIHkdp ehl;L rPfd; ghy;f;fplKk; GSr;NrhtplKk; vOjpf; Nfl;lhH. mtHfs; ,UtUk; rk;kjk; njuptpj;J vOjpdH.

vdNt ,tHfsJ rk;kjk; mq;fPfupf;fg;gl;lJ. vdpDk; may;ehl;L kp\dwpfsha;r; nry;YNthH rpy guPl;irfspy; NjwplNtz;bapUe;jJ. ,jw;fpzq;f ,UtUk; tutiof;fg;gl;L guPl;rpf;fg;gl;ldH. ,tHfisg; guPl;rpj;jtH GdpjH ,af;fj;ij ntWg;gtH. rPfd;ghy;f;Fk; GSr;NrhTk; GdpjH ,af;fj;jpy; mjpf ehl;lKilatH. Mifahy; Kjy; guPl;irapy; ,tHfs; ,e;jpahtpw;Fr; nry;yj; jFjpaw;wtHfs; vd;W jPHg;gspf;fg;gl;ldH. jiyikaplj;J cj;juTg;gb kPz;Lk; xU guPl;ir elj;jg;gl;lJ. jiyikaplk; ,tHfSf;Fr; rhjfkhapUg;gijawpe;j guPl;ir Nkw;ghHitahsH ,tHfs; jFjpAs;stHfs;jhd; vd;W jPHg;gspj;jhH.

rPfd;ghy;f;Fk; GSr;NrhTk; ,e;jpahtpw;F tutpUg;gij mwpe;j Nldp\; fk;ngdpahH jq;fsJ Rje;jpuk; (kdk;Nghy; elj;jy;) ghjpf;fg;gLk; vd;nwz;zp mtHfsJ tutpw;F Kl;Lf;fl;ilapl Kaw;rpj;jdH.

rPfd;ghy;f; ,e;jpahtpw;F tUjYk; gzpapd; Muk;gKk;

rPfd;ghy;f;iftpl GSr;Nr MWtajpw;F %j;jtH. ,Ug;gpDk; ,UtUk; xUkpj;j fUj;JilatHfs;> cw;w ez;gHfs;. ,UtUk; 1706k; Mz;L [{iy khjk; 9k; Njjp Nrhgp nfl;tpf; vd;Dk; fg;gypy; juq;fk; ghbf;F te;jdH.

juq;fk;ghbaUfpy; epWj;jg;gl;bUe;j fg;gypypUe;J midtUk; fiuf;Fk; nry;y mDkjpf;fg;gl;ldH. Mdhy; ,t;tpUtUf;Fk; mDkjp toq;fg;gltpy;iy. ,tHfis Vw;Wf;nfhs;sNth cgrupf;fNth xUtUkpy;iy. ,tHfisf; fiuf;Ff; nfhz;L nry;y xUtUk; glF mDg;gTkpy;iy. rpy ehl;fSf;Fg; gpd;dH xUtH mtHfSf;F cjtpl Kd;te;jhH. mtH mt;tpUtiuAk; ,d;ndhU fg;gYf;F khw;wpdhH. mjpypUe;J jq;ff;Fzk; gilj;j jkpoHfspd; cjtpahy; glfpNywp fiuNrHe;jdH. fiuNrHe;jNghJ murhq;f mYtyH xUtH jd; ifapy; gpbj;jpUe;j fk;gpapdhy; mbj;J tpLNtd; vd;W $wpg; gaKWj;jpdhH. MfNt mtHfs; mq;Nf epw;fNtz;bajhapw;W. mg;NghJ Neuk; fhiy gj;J kzp. md;W khiy ehd;F kzp tiuapYk; mtHfs; juq;fk;ghb efUf;Fs; nrd;wpl mDkjpf;fg;gltpy;iy. Mk;! mUe;jplj; jz;zPH$lf; nfhLf;fg;glhj epiyapy; mq;NfNa epd;wdH.

vt;tsT rpwg;ghd tuNtw;G! fpwp];Jitg;gw;wp RtpNr\k; $wte;j kp\dwpfis INuhg;gpaH tuNtw;w tpjk; ,Jjhd;.

,Us; R+Ok; Neuj;jpy; Nldp\; jsgjp N[.rp. Nfrpa]; rPfd;ghy;f;ifr; re;jpf;f te;jjH. mjl;Lk; Njhuizapy; cq;fis ,q;F tur;nrhd;dJ ahH? vd;W Nfl;lhH. rPfd;ghy;f;Fk; GSr;NrhTk; jhq;fs; Nldp\; murupd; fl;lisg;gb te;jjhff; $wp> mjw;fhd mj;jhl;rpg; gj;jpuj;ijAk; fhl;bdH. vdNt Nfrpa]; mikjpg;gl;Lj; jpUk;gpdhH. mtH gpd;dhy; ,t;tpU CopaHfSk; nrd;wdH. re;ijj;jply; tiu gpd;dhy; nrd;wdH. gpd;dH Ntfkhf Nfrpa]; nrd;Wtpl;likahy; ,UtUk; nra;tjwpahJ jpifj;J epw;fyhapdH.

Njtd; jk;ik ek;GfpwtHfisf; iftpLfpwjpy;iy vd;gJ vd;WNk ngha;j;jjpy;iy.

Mk;> mq;F xU n[HkhdpaH te;jhH. jpifj;J epd;w ,tHfisj; jd;DlNd mioj;Jr; nrd;whH. jdJ khkhtpd; tPl;by; nfhz;L NrHj;jhH. gpd;dH ,tHfs; thliff;F tPL mkHj;jp mq;F thoyhapdH.

Nfrpa];> jpl;lk; gy jPl;bdhH. ,k;kp\dwpfshy; jd; cUl;Lk; Gul;Lk; ,opr;nray;fSk; re;ijf;F te;JtpLk; vd;W gae;jtuha; ,tHfSf;Fj; njhy;iy nfhLj;jpl> JaH ngUf;fpl KO%r;Rld; nray;g;glyhdhH. Nldp\; fk;gdpahUk; Nfrparpd; jpl;lq;fSf;nfy;yhk; MjuT nfhLj;jdH.

1707k; mz;L tUlg;gpwg;G jpdj;jpy; GSr;Nrh fpwp];jtHfspd; ghtq;fisf; Fwpj;Jk; fk;gdpahupd; mtkhdr; nray;fisf; Fwpj;Jk; fz;bj;Jg; Ngrp mtHfs; kde;jpUk;gp ,NaR fhl;ba topapy; elf;f Ntz;Lnkd;W Nghjpj;jhH. vdNt md;W khiyapy;jhNd rPfd;ghy;f;Fk; GSr;NrhTk; Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gl;L ftHdH Kd;dpiyapy; epWj;jg;gl;ldH.

rPfd;ghy;f;ifAk; GSr;NrhitAk; Nfrpa]; mbj;J nehWf;fp tpLgtHNghy; Nfhgk; nfhz;lhH. ,e;j eha;fSf;F ek;ikg; gw;wp Vd; ,e;j mf;fiw vd;W $wpathNw ifia klf;fp rPfd;ghy;f;fpd; neQ;rpNy Fj;jpdhH. ,ijf;fz;l jkpo;j;jhapd; Gjy;tHfs; Nfrpa];jhd; eha; vd;W cs;sj;jpy; vz;zpdH. fpwp];Jitg; gpurq;fpg;NghH cz;ikapNyNa tPuHfs;jhd;. ,tHfSf;Nf ,j;jif tPuk; ,Uf;Fk;NghJ fpwp];JtpYk; vj;jidahapUe;jpUf;Fk; vd;W epidj;jdH> ngU%r;R tpl;ldH.

rPfd;ghy;f; kde;jsuhJ nra;aNtz;batw;iwr; nra;J nfhz;NlapUe;jjhH. mepahak; nra;ag;gl;lNghnjy;yhk; ,ad;wsT Njt xj;jhirAld; vjpHj;jhH.

xUrkak; xU tpjit Nfrparplk; epahaj;jpw;fhf Kiwapl;lhs;. Nfrpa]; mjw;Fr; nrtprha;f;ftpy;iy. mtSila fztH uhag;gd; jiyKb rpq;fhupf;Fk; njhopy; Gupe;jtH. ,tH Qhd];ehdk; ngw;W ey;ynjhU fpwp];jtuha; tho;e;jhH. jPbnud mtH kupj;Jg; NghdhH. mtuJ nrhj;J rk;ge;jkhf tpjitf;Fk; FLk;gj;jpdH rpyUf;Fk; jfuhW Vw;gl;lJ. ,ij tprhupj;J epahak; toq;FkhWjhd; mts; Nfrparplk; Nfl;lJ. mtH ,jid mrl;il nra;jjhy; mts; mq;fyha;j;jhs;. ,jid mwpe;j rPfd;ghy;f;> jhd; mwpe;j cz;ikfis vLj;Jf;$wp me;j Viof; fpwp];jtSf;F epahak; toq;FkhW xU fbjk; vOjpdhH. ,jdhy; Nfrpa]; fLq;Nfhgkile;jhH. murpaypy; jiyapLfpwhH rPfd;ghy;f; vd;W Fw;wk; rhl;bdhH. rPfd;ghy;;if mioj;J tUkhW XH mbikia mDg;gpdhH. gpd;dH rPfd;ghy;f; ,jdpkpj;jk; rpiwapyilf;fg;gl;lhH.

rPfd;ghy;f; ehd;F khjq;fs; rpiwapy; mtjpAw;whH. rpwpanjhU miwapy; rpiw tho;f;if elj;jpa rPfd;ghy;f;if ahUk; ghHj;jpl mDkjpf;fg;gltpy;iy. vOJtjw;F fhfpjk;> Ngdh MfpadTk; nfhLf;fg;gltpy;iy. mdhy; fHj;jH mtiu vt;tpjf; FiwTkpd;wp Ngh\pj;jhH. md;dhUf;Fj; Jd;gkspj;J te;j Nfrpa]; jd; Kaw;rpfsidj;Jk; tPzhtijf; fz;L> mtiu tpLiy nra;Jtpl vz;zpdhH. Mdhy; mjw;F Kd; kd;dpg;Gf; fbjk; vOJtjhdhy; cldbahf tpLjiy nra;ayhk; vd;W GSr;Nrhtplk; Nfrpa]; nrhy;yp mDg;gpdhH. rPfd;ghy;f; mjw;F ,zq;ftpy;iy. Nfrpa]; jtWfis czuyhdhH. NfrpaRf;F rPfd;ghy;f;if tpLjiy nra;ahky; epk;kjp ,y;iy vd;w epiy Vw;gl;lJ. Mifahy; jd; kidtpAld; xUehs; rPfd;ghy;f;iff; fhzr;nrd;whH. rPfd;ghy;f; Nfrpairj; jd; neUq;fpd ez;gidg;Nghy; tuNtw;W md;Gld; NgrpdhH. rPfd;ghy;f; 1709k; Mz;L khHr; khjk; 26k; Njjp tpLjiyahdhH.

rPfd;ghy;f;Fk; GSr;NrhTk; fpwp];J ehk kfpikf;fhf mile;j Ntjidfis tptupg;gpd; ek; fz;fspy; fz;zPH ngUFk;> cs;sj;jpd; Ntjid ngU%r;rha; ntsptUk;.

,t;tpU kp\dwpfSk; rpy fhyk; nrhe;j ehL nrd;W jpUk;gpdhy; ey;yJ vd vz;zpdH. Mdhy; mtHfs; jq;fs; jha;ehl;bw;Fr; nry;yhjpUf;f vd;ndd;d ,ila+W nra;a KbANkh mj;jidiaAk; fk;gdpahH nra;jdH.

jkpOf;Fj; njhz;lhw;Wjy;

rPfd;ghy;f; jkpo; fw;wy;

rPfd;ghy;f; Iaiu jkpoHfs; ed;F Nerpj;jdH. jkpoHfs; ghuhl;ba md;G mtuJ ruPu ngytPdj;jpy; GJj; njk;ig mspj;jJ.

GSr;NrhTk; rPfd;ghy;Fk; juq;fk;ghbapy; xU rpW gs;spf;$lk; Muk;gpj;jdH. ,UtUk; jhq;fs; Muk;gpj;j gps;spapNy rpW gps;isfNshL jiuapy; cl;fhHe;J jkpo; vOj;Jf;fis tpuypdhy; kzypd; jiuapy; vOjp jkpo; fw;wdH. mtHfSf;F Kjypag;gd; vd;w tNahjpgH fw;Wf;nfhLj;jhH.

rPfd;ghy;f; ,uz;L tUlq;fshf N[Hkd; Gj;jfNkh yj;jPd; Gj;jfNkh gbf;fhky; jkpioNa fw;whH. jpdKk; fhiy VO kzp Kjy; vl;L kzp tiu fle;j ehspy; fw;w jkpo;r; nrhw;fis kdg;ghlkha;r; nrhy;YthH. gpd;dH vl;Lkzp Kjy; xU kzp tiu jkpo;r; Rtbfs; gbg;ghH. khiyapy; %d;W kzp Kjy; Ie;J kzp tiu kPz;Lk; jkpo;r; Rtbfs; gbg;ghH. ,uT VO kzp Kjy; vl;Lkzp tiu ahiuahtJ xUtiu jkpo;g;Gj;jfq;fis thrpf;fr; nra;J ftdpj;Jf;nfhz;L ,Ug;ghH.

,t;tpjkha; ,tH jkpiog; gbj;jikahy; vl;L khjq;fspy; jkpopy; NgrTk; vOjTk; fw;Wf;nfhz;lhH. ,jdhy; jkpOf;F kWkyHr;rpf;fhyk; Muk;gpf;fyhapw;W vdyhk;. ,f;$w;W rupjhNdhntd Nfs;tp vOg;gyhk;.

fk;gdp tHj;jfHfs; kj;jpapYk;> fk;gdp gl;lhsj;jpdH kj;jpapYk; CopaHfs; mf;fhyj;jpy; ,Ue;jNghjpYk; mtHfsplk; fpwp];jtj; njhz;lhw;Wk; thQ;ir ,y;iy. vdNt ,e;epiyapy; gupRj;j NtjGj;jfj;ijj; jkpopy; nkhopngaHj;jy; ,yFthd fhupaky;y. fpwp];jt CopaH xUtUila cjtpAkpd;wp jdpj;Nj mtH ,g;gzpapy; <LglyhdhH. ,g;gzpapid mtH Muk;gpg;gjw;FKd; mtH gy ehl;fsha; Cf;fkha; n[gpj;jhH. GJ cw;rhfKk; nja;t top elj;JjYk; ngw;whH. vdNt 1708k; Mz;L mf;NlhgH khjk; 17k; Njjp Gjpa Vw;ghl;il nkhopngaHf;f Muk;gpj;jhH.

1707k; Mz;L khHr; khjj;jpypUe;J gy ghl;Lf;fis nkhopngaHj;jhH. jkpo; ,uhfq;fSf;Nfw;w fPHj;jidfis ,aw;wpdhH. ,tH ,aw;wpa 48 ghly;fs; vl;L Mz;LfSf;Fg; gpd;dH mr;rplg;gl;ld.

jkpo; Gjpa Vw;ghL nkhopngaHg;G mr;rplg;gLKd; 1713k; Mz;by; jkpo;ehl;l nja;tq;fspd; guk;giu vd;w E}iy vOjpdhH. ePq;fs; ,g; Gj;jfj;jpidg; gbj;jgpd; cz;ikia mwpe;Jnfhs;tPHfs;.

rPfd;ghy;f; Kjypy; jkpopy; xw;iwj;jhs; gpujpfSk; gpd;dH gpurq;fq;fSk; vOjpdhH. mjd;gpd; Gj;jfq;fs; vOjpdhH. ,it ahTk; ifg;gpujpfshapUe;jd.

nkhopngaHf;Fk; gzpapy; <LgLjy;

gupRj;j NtjGj;jfj;ijj; jkpopy; nkhopngaHj;J jkpoHfs; Ntjj;ijg; gbj;J jhq;fshfNt mwpe;Jnfhs;Sk; toptifjid ,Jtiu ahUk; nra;atpy;iy. Gul;l];lhd;l; kp\d; gpuptpdH ek; ehl;by; Copak; nra;a Muk;gpg;gjw;F Kd;djhfNt fj;Njhypf;fg; gpuptpdH ,e;jpahtpy; epiynfhz;bUe;jNghjpYk; Ntjg;Gj;jfj;ijj; jkpopy; jpUj;jp midtUk; gbj;jpLk; tifapy; ahUk; fUj;Jr; nrYj;jpajpy;iy vdyhk;.

,g;Gj;jfk; 219 gf;fq;fisf; nfhz;lJ. ePjpntz;gh> nfhd;iwNte;jd;> cyfePjp vd;Dk; jkpo; E}y;fis xd;W NrHj;J ehdhtpj E}y;fs; vd;w ngaUld; Mf;fpitj;jhH. ,jw;Fs; mtH xU Kd;DiuiaAk; NrHj;jhH. yj;jPd; nkhopapy; xU jkpo; ,yf;fz E}y; ,aw;wpdhH. n[Hkd; nkhopapy; kyghH ehl;L khHf;fj;ijg;gw;wpa KOtpguKk; vd;w 322 gf;fq;fs; nfhz;lnjhU E}iyAk; vOjpdhH (kyghH vd;Dk; thHj;ij jkpo; ehl;ilf; Fwpg;gpLfpwJ)

jpU rPfd;ghy;f; gid Xiyapy; vOJtjpy; NjHr;rp ngw;whH. gidXiyr; Rtbapy; vOjpatw;iw n[Hkdpapy; jdpj;jdpj; jkpo; vOj;Jf;fshf thHj;njLf;f xOq;F nra;jhH.

,e;jpahtpw;Fj; nra;j njhz;L

Kjy; fhfpjj; njhopw;rhiy

n[Hkdpapy; thHg;gpf;fg;gl;l vOj;Jf;fs; ,e;jpahtpw;F te;jgpd; mtw;iw mr;rpLtjw;fhd fhfpjKk; mr;rfKk; ,e;jpahtpy; ,y;yhikahy; Nkw;nfhz;L vd;dnra;tnjd;W vz;zplyhdhH. ,tH vOjp itj;jpUe;j gidXiyr; Rtb tbtpyhd E}w;fisg; gyUk; mwpa mr;rpl;Lg; gug;g KbahjpUe;j epiyikapid ed;W czHe;jpUe;j ml;NyhH Jiu vd;gtH ,e;jpahtpNyNa fhfpjk; nra;Ak; Kaw;rpapyPLgl;lhH. mtH juq;fk;ghbf;F mUfpYs;s nghwhahH vd;Dk; ,lj;jpy; fhfpjk; nra;tjw;fhd Miyia vw;gLj;jpdhH. rPfd;ghy;f;fpd; J}z;LjYk; Cf;f%l;LjYk; ,jw;Ff; fhuzkhapUe;jJ. ,Jjhd; ,e;jpahtpd; Kjy; fhfpjj; njhopw;rhiy.

kp\dwpfs; ,e;jpah GJikngw vt;tstha; cioj;jpUf;fpwhHfs; vd;gij ,r;nray; njs;sj; njspa vLj;Jiuf;fpd;wjy;yth?

Copaj;jpw;Fj; Njitahd fhfpjk; jd; njhopw;rhiapy; nra;JnfhLj;J cjtpdhH ml;NyhH.

,e;jpahtpd; Kjy; mr;rk;

rPfd;ghy;f;fpd; ey; Copaj;ij mwpe;j ,q;fpyhe;J ehl;L fpwp];J khHf;f mgptpUj;jpr; rq;fj;jhH XH mr;R ,ae;jpuj;ij mtUf;F mDg;gp tij;jdH. mt;tr;R ,ae;jpuj;ij Rke;Jte;j fg;gy;> n[Hkdpa ez;gHfs; nfhLj;j mr;R vOj;Jf;fisAk; Rke;Jte;jJ.

mr;R ,ae;jpuj;ijf; nfhz;Lte;j fg;giy topapy; gpuQ;Rf;fhuhHfs; gpbj;Jf;nfhz;ldH. rpy ehl;fSf;Fg; gpd; nrd;id ftHdH gzk; nrYj;jp mf;fg;giy kPl;lhH. vdNt kPz;Lk; fg;gy; ,e;jpah Nehf;fpg; gpuahzk; Muk;gpj;jJ. Mg;gpupf;fhtpd; njd;Nfhbapy; ed;dk;gpf;if Kid mUNf fg;gy; tUk;NghJ mr;R ,ae;jpuj;ij ,af;fj; njupe;jpUe;j epGzH kupj;Jg;NghdhH. mr;R ,ae;jpuk; juq;fk;ghbf;F te;jJ. Mdhy; mjid ,af;fj; njupe;j xUtUk; ,y;yhjjhy; ,ae;jpuk; cgNahfpf;f Kbahj epiyapy; itf;fg;gl;lJ.

vdpDk; rPfd;ghy;f; cw;rhfk; Fd;wtpy;iy. ek;gpf;ifapy; jsHr;rpailatpy;iy. ,k;kl;Lk; elj;jpd Njtd; ,d;dKk; elj;JthH vd;w ek;gpf;ifAld; nrayhw;wpdhH. rpy ehl;fspy; Nldp\; NridapypUe;j NghHtPuH xUtUf;F mr;R ,aj;jpuj;ij ,af;fj; njupAk; vd;gijf; Nfs;tpg;gl;lhH. jsgjpapd; mDkjp ngw;W mtiu mioj;J te;J Kjypy; rpy gpurq;fq;fisAk; gpd;dH tpdh tpil vd;w E}iyAk; mr;rpl;lhH. ,itjhd; ,e;jpahtpy; mr;rplg;gl;l Kjy; E}y;fs; (1713). 1713k; Mz;bd; ,Wjpg; ghfj;jpy; Gjpa Vw;ghl;bd; mr;Rg; gjpg;ig Muk;gpj;jhH.

,e;jpahtpy; mr;R vOj;Jf;fs; thHg;gpf;fg;gLjy;

n[HkdpapypUe;J nfhz;Ltug;gl;l mr;nrOj;Jf;fs; kpfg; gUkdhapUe;jgbahy; juq;fk;ghbapy; rpwpa mr;nrOj;Jf;fs; thHf;fg;gLtjw;fhd xOq;Ffis ,tH nra;jhH. mr;nrOj;Jf;fs; ,e;jpahtpNyNa nra;ag;gl;ld.

Mk;! ,e;jpahtpy; (jkpo;ehl;by;) fpwp];jt Copak; nra;Jte;j rPfd;ghy;f; mr;rfk; Vw;gLj;jpaJ> mr;nrOj;Jf;fs; thHg;gpj;jJ Mfpad ,e;jpahtpd; Kd;Ndw;wj;jpd; Kjy; fl;lk; vd;gij ahH kWj;jplf; $Lk;> kiwj;jpl ,aYk;.

,e;jpahtpd; mwpTf;fz;izj; jpwf;ff; fhuzkhapUe;NjhH fpwp];jtHfs;jhd; vd;gJ cs;sq;if ney;ypf;fdpiag;Nghy; Gyg;gLfpwjd;Nwh? fpwp];jtHfis ek; NjrKd;Ndw;wj;jpw;F Kd; Fwpj;jpUe;jtH ,NaR fpwp];Jtd;Nwh! ,jid ,e;jpaH midtUk; czHe;J ,NaRit jq;fs; nrhe;j ,ul;rfuhf Vw;Wf;nfhz;lhy; tskha; MrPHthjk; ek; ehl;by; jq;Fkd;Nwh!

juq;fk;ghbapy; mr;rfj;jpy; ntspaplg;gl;l rPfd;ghy;f;Ftpd; E}w;fs; Y}j;jupd; QhNdhgNjrf; Fwpg;G> ,ul;rpg;gpd; xOq;F> Nrho kz;lyjh;jhUf;F xU epUgk;> Qhdg;ghl;Lg; Gj;jfk;> n[gg; Gj;jfk; MfpadthFk;.

RtpNr\ Copak;

rPfd;ghy;f; nkhopngaHj;j jkpo; Gjpa Vw;ghL gbg;gjw;F vspaeilapy; mike;jpUe;jjhy; VuhskhNdhH tpUk;gpg; gbj;jdH. gyH mjidg; gbj;J kde;jpUk;gp fHj;juhfpa ,NaRNt nka;ahd nja;tk; vd;W mwpe;J mtiu Vw;Wf;nfhz;lhH.

Nuhkd; fj;Njhypf;f rigapduhapUe;j uh[ehaf;fd; vd;gtH rPfd;ghy;f; nkhopnaHj;j Gjpa Vw;ghl;ilg; gbj;jjhy; juq;fk;ghb Gul;l];ld;l; kp\dwpfNshL njhlHG nfhz;lhH. gpd;dH Gul;lh];ld;l; fpwp];jtuhdhH. ,utJ kdkhw;wk; tPukhKdptH vd;w ng];fpf;F fLQ; rpdKz;lhf;fpaJ. ng];fp rpwe;j mwpthsp. ngaH ngw;w jkpwpQH. vdpDk; ,tH uh[ehaf;fDf;F ,lH gy nra;a Kad;wplyhdhH.

uh[ehaf;fdpd; tPl;il mopj;jpl ng];fp Ml;fis mDg;gpdhH. CuhH mjidj; jLj;J epWj;jpdH. gpd;dH mtuJ J}z;Ljyhy; rpyH nrd;W uh[ehaf;fdpd; tPl;il jhf;fpdhH. uh[ehaf;fdpd; ,U rNfhjuHfs; fhakile;jdH. mtuJ je;ij nfhy;yg;gl;lhH. vdpDk; uh[ehaf;fd; jsuh tpRthrj;Jld; jd; Ntiyia tpl;Ltpl;L RtpNr\ CopauhdhH. mtH %yk; RtpNr\k; gy ,lq;fspYk; gutpaJ.

rPfd; ghy;f; Copak; nra;tjpy; Kd;zzpapy; epd;whH. gpw kjj;jtH kj;jpapy; ,iltplhJ Copak; nra;jhH. gpw kjj;jtH ,tiu ntWf;ftpy;iy. md;G ghuhl;bdH. ghrKld; elj;jpdH.

,tH juq;fk;ghbapy; jd; tPl;bw;F Kd;dhy; ngupanjhU ge;jy; mikj;jpUe;jhH. ,g;ge;jypy; thujw;jpw;F %d;W ehs; RNjrpfs; te;J $LtH. mtHfSf;F fpwp];Jitg;gw;wpf; $wp RtpNr\l gzpGupe;jhH. mtiuj; jdpahff; fz;L Ngr tpUk;GNthUf;nfd rkak; xJf;fp itj;jpUe;jhH. mt;Ntisapy; mq;F tUNthiu xt;nthUtuha; tprhupj;J mtHfSf;F Mj;kPf czizf; nfhLj;jNjhL ey; cgNjrq;fSk; $wp cjtp nra;jhH. vdNt mtiuf; fz;LNgrp fHj;jiug;gw;wp mwpe;J fspg;gila mNefH tUtJz;L.

,f;fhyj;Jg; NghjfHkhupy; ngUk;ghyhNdhH ,k;Kiwapidg; gpd;gw;whJ cs;sdH. rpy ehl;fs; njhlHgha; Myaj;jpw;F tuhjtHfs;> Gjpjhf Myaj;jpw;F tUNthH> fz;zPUk; > ftiyAkha; tUNthH> MfpNahiuj; jdpNa re;jpj;Jg;Ngrp> Mz;ltd; jpUthf;if mtHfSf;Ff; $wp> MWjyspg;gJ kpfTk; crpjkhdnjhU nrayhFk;.

juq;fk;ghbapy; ,tH jq;fplj; Jtf;fpa ,uz;lhk; Mz;by; Nghj;Jf;fPrpa rpWtHfSf;nfd xU gs;spf;$lk; Muk;gpj;jhH. mjpy; ek; jkpo; nry;yf; Foe;ijfs; gy te;J fw;wd. mtHfSf;F fpwp];jtf; fy;tp nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ. rpy ehl;fspy; mJ rpwpaNjhH rigahf khwpaJ. RNjrpfs; gyH jpUKOf;Fg; ngw;W rigapd; mq;fkhapdH. fj;Njhypf;fg; gpuptpypUe;Jk; gyH te;J ,r;rigapy; NrHe;Jnfhz;ldH. ,r;rigapy; 1707k; Mz;L 35 NgUk;> 1708k; Mz;L 101 NgUk; 1712k; mz;L 202 NgUk; mq;fk; tfpj;jdH. ,t;tpjkha; rig tsuyhapw;W.

rl;ilf;fhuUf;nfd;W (Anglo - Indian) NghHbq; ghlrhiy xd;W ];jhgpj;jhH. ,tH kupf;Fk;NghJ NghHbq; ghlrhiyapy; 280 Ngh gbj;Jf;nfhz;bUe;jdH.

ehl;by; epytpa [hjp tpj;jpahrk; rigapy; epytp tplhjgb rPfd;ghy;f; Kad;wNghjpYk; KbahJ Nghapw;W. rPfd;ghy;; Muk;gpj;j rigapy; NghHj;Jf;fPrpaH> INuhg;gpa cil mzpe;J ehfuPfkhaj; Njhw;wkspj;jdH. Mjp jpuhtpl ,dj;ijr; NrHj;j Gj;jpf; $HikAs;s rpWthfSf;Fk; INuhg;gpa Kiwapyhd Mil mzptpj;J rl;ilf;fhuNuhL rkj;Jtkha; elj;jg;gl;ldH. ,tHfs; R+j;jpur; rpWtHfistpl caHe;jtHfsha;f; fUj;jg;gl;ldH. fyg;Gj; jpUkzk; gy;NtW [hjpapdUf;Fs; eilngw;wJ. Mdhy; R+j;jpuHfSf;Fk; MjpjpuhtplHfSf;FkpilNa fyg;Gj; jpUkzk; eilngwtpy;iy.

gy [hjpapdH rigapy; ,Ue;jNghjpYk; rPfd;ghy;f; kpfj; jpwikahf midtiuAk; xw;WikAld; gupghypj;J te;jJ> mtH cyf ,ul;rfH fpwp];Jtplk; fw;w ghlNkad;wp Ntwy;y.

rPfd;ghy;f; fl;ba Kjy; Myak;

rPfd;ghy;f; ,e;jpahtpy; (juq;fk;ghb) Copak; nra;jjpd; gydha; rig Vw;gl;lnjd;W ghHj;Njhk;. mtH te;j gjpd;%d;W khjq;fspy; mofpa Myak; xd;wpidf; fl;bdhH. 1707k; Mz;L Mf];L khjk; 14k; Njjp mt;thyak; gpujp\;il nra;ag;gl;lJ. md;W mtH (rq;.122:6) vUrNykpd; rkhjhdj;Jf;fhf Ntz;bf;nfhs;Sq;fs;. cd;id Nerpf;fpwtHfs; Rfpj;jpUg;ghHfshf! vd;w trdj;jpd;Ngupy; jkpopy; mUSiu Mw;wpdhH.

 ,Jjhd; ,e;jpahtpy; ,e;jpaUf;fhff; fl;lg;gl;l Kjy; fpwp];jt Myak;. (1680k; Mz;by; nrd;idg; gl;lzj;jpy; ,e;jpahtpd; Kjy; Gul;l];lhd;l; Myak; fl;lg;gl;ljhf tuyhw;Wf; Fwpg;Gfs; cs;sd. mt;thyak; INuhg;gpaHfSf;fhff; fl;lg;gl;lJ)

rPfd;ghy;f; RkhH MWkhj fhyk; nrd;idg; gl;lzj;jpy; RtpNr\ Copak; Gupe;Js;shH. mg;NghJ mq;fpUe;j Gu];lhz;l; Myaj;jpy; mUSiu Mw;wpapUf;ff; $Lk;. mjd; gpd;dH cldbahf juq;fk;ghbapy; jkpoUf;fhf Myak; fl;lg;glNtz;ba Njitia czHe;J tpiutpy; Myaj;ijf; fl;bapUg;ghH vd;W ek;gplyhk;.

jha;ehL nrd;W tUjy;

nfhd;wpl te;jtHfs; ntl;fpj; jpUk;Gjy;

 1710 Mk; Mz;L nrd;id nrd;W ez;gHfisr; re;jpj;jNjhL ,e;Jf;fs; kj;jpapy; Copak; nra;jhH. 1711 Mk; Mz;bYk; nrd;idf;Fr; nrd;whH. ,uz;lhk; jlit nrd;idf;Fr; nrd;wNghJ Kd;dpYk; MHtkha; fpuhkq;fSf;Fr; nrd;W RtpNr\k; $wpdhH. njYq;F gpuhkzHfs; ,tiu mjpfkha; vjpHf;fyhapdH.

 xUehs; fpuhkq;fspy; RtpNr\k; $wptpl;L khiyapy; xU rj;jpuj;jpy; jq;fpdhH. rPfd;ghy;f;NfhL NtW jkpo; ez;gHfs; ,Ue;jdH. fisg;gpd; kpFjpahy; rPfd;ghy;f;Fk; ez;gHfSk; J}q;fptpl;ldH. es;sputpy; mq;F rpyuJ fhyb Xirahy; jhtPJ vd;gtH tpopj;Jf;nfhz;lhH. mtH topj;Jf;nfhz;lhnudpDk; vOk;gtpy;iy. fz;fis %bathNw gLj;jpUe;jhH. vdNt mq;F te;NjhH njYq;fpy; Ngrpf;nfhz;l thHj;ijfs; mtuJ fhJfspy; tpOq;fd. jhtPJ njYq;F nkhop mwpe;jtuhifahy; clNd vOk;gp> rPfd;ghy;f;ifAk; vOk;gpdhH. mtHfs; vOk;gp cl;fhHe;jhHfs;.

 Mk;! mq;F te;jtHfs; NtW ahUky;y> rpy njYq;F gpuhkzHfs;jhd;. mtHfs; mtiuf; nfhd;wplf; fq;fzk; fl;b te;jpUe;jdH. rPfd;ghy;f; mtHfsplk; ciuahbdhH> vupr;rYldy;y> md;Gld;. mtHfs; ntl;fpj; jpUk;gp tpiue;jdH. Njtd; mjprakha; rPfd;ghy;f;iff; fhg;ghw;wpdhH.

jha;ehL nry;Yjy;

rPfd;ghy;f; ePz;l ehl;fsha; tpUk;gpathW 1714k; Mz;L jha;ehL nry;Yk; tha;g;gpidg; ngw;whH. INuhg;ghtpw;Fr; nry;Yk; gpuahzj;jpd;NghJk; mtH Xa;ntLf;ftpy;iy. INuhg;ghtpw;Fr; nrd;w gpd;dUk; Xa;ntLf;ftpy;iy. gzpapy; <Lgl;Lf;nfhz;NlapUe;jhH.

INuhg;ghtpw;Fr; nry;Yk;NghJ kiyag;gd; vd;w xU thypggid mioj;Jr; nrd;wpUe;jhH. mt;thypgdpd; JizAld; fg;gy; gpuahzj;jpd;NghJ gioa Vw;ghl;bd; NahRthtpd; Gj;jfk; tiuapYk; jkpohf;fk; nra;jhH.

 INuhg;ghtpw;Fr; nrd;wJk; mq;F gy ,lq;fSf;Fk; nrd;W ,e;jpahtpy; eilngWk; RtpNr\ Copaj;ijg;gw;wp vLj;Jiuj;jhH. ,jdhy; mq;Fs;NshH ,e;jpahtpy; eilngWk; RtpNr\ Copak; gw;wp mjpf fuprid nfhz;L NguhjuT Gupe;jdH.

 ,q;fpyhe;J nrd;W Kjyhk; IhH[; kd;diuAk; FLk;gj;ijAk; re;jpj;Jg; NgrpdhH. ,e;jpahtpw;F RtpNr\ Copak; kpfkpfj; NjitahdJ vd;gij mtHfSf;F tptupj;Jiuj;jhH.

 fpwp];J khHf;f fy;tp mgptpUj;jpr;rq;fj;jhiuAk; fz;L NgrpdhH. kw;Wk; gy jdte;jHfisAk; Copaj;ijj; jhq;Fk; kdg;gf;FtKila NjtjhrHfisAk; re;jpj;Jg; NgrpdhH.

nld;khHf; muriuf; fz;L Ngrp Fiw eptpHj;jpf;f Ntz;bdhH. vdNt kd;dH> Kd;dH Copaj;jpw;Ff; nfhLj;j nghUSjtpiatpl $Ljy; xU klq;F (4000 lhyH) epjp cjtpaspj;jhH.

,e;jpahtpy; Nfrpa]; rPfd;ghy;f;fpw;F ,iof;fg;gl;l nfhLikfis mwpe;j murH Nfrpair cldbahf jha;ehL jpUk;GkhW fl;lis gpwg;gpj;jhH. md;dhUf;Fg; gjpyha; fpwp];jt rPyk; epiwe;j gpud; vd;gtH epakpf;fg;gl;lhH.

jpUkzk;

1717k; Mz;L rPfd;ghy;f; gf;jpapy; rpwe;j Copa thQ;ir epiwe;j Nkupah rhy;];khd; vd;w mk;khisj; jpUkzk; nra;jhH. jpUkzj;jpw;Fg; gpd; md;dhupy; Copa thQ;ir tsHe;jNjad;wp Fiwe;jpltpy;iy.

RftPdk;

jha;ehl;by; fy;Nyapy; ,Uf;Fk;NghJ jpBnud Neha;tha;g;gl;L kuzj;jpd; jiythapy; tiuapYk; nrd;whH. Mdhy; fHj;jupd; Copak; mtH%yk; ,d;dKk; mjpfkha; eilngw Ntz;bajpUe;jikahy; fHj;jH jk; fuj;ij ePl;b mtiuj; njhl;L Rfkspj;jhH.

 ,e;jpahtpw;Fj; jpUk;Gjy;

rPfd;ghy;f; GJ N[hbaha; ,e;jpahtpw;Fj; jpUk;gpdhH. (1716k; Mz;L Mf];L khjk; juq;fk;ghbapy; te;J NrHe;jhH) kf;fs; jpus; $l;lkha;r; nrd; FJ}fyj;Jld; tuNtw;wdH. NfrpaRf;Fg; gjpyhf epakpf;fg;gl;bUe;j gpud; kfpo;r;rp Muthuk; nra;J tuNtw;whH.

rPfd;ghy;f;fpd; jpUg;gzptpilAk; fpwp];JkPJ ehl;lk; nfhz;l jkpoHfSk;

 vUrNyk; Myak;

 juq;fk;ghbapy; fpwp];jtHfspd; vz;zpf;if tsHe;jjhy; Kd;dH fl;ba vUrNyk; Myak;NghJkhdjhf ,y;iy. vdNt GjpanjhU vUrNyk; Myaj;jpw;F 9.2.1717y; m];jpghukpl;lhH. md;iwa jpdk; mtH> Nghlg;gl;bUf;fpw m];jpghukhfpa ,NaR fpwp];Jitay;yhky;> NtNw m];jpghuj;ijg;Nghl xUtuhYk; $lhJ vd;w 1.nfhup.3:11 tdj;ij Mjhukhff; nfhz;L mUSiuahw;wpdhH. ,t;thyaf; fl;Lkhd Ntiy Kbe;J 11.10.1718y; gpujp\;il nra;ag;gl;lJ. mjw;F Gjpa vUrNyk; Myak; vd;W ngaH R+l;bdhH. ,d;Wk; ,t;thyak; juq;fk;ghb uh[tPjpapy; fk;gPukha;j; Njhw;wkspf;fpwJ.

Kjy; Ntjrh];jpug; ghlrhiy

fpwp];J khHf;fj;jpd; ew;nra;jpia VuhskhNdhUf;Ff; $wp mtHfisf; fpwp];J tz;ilapy; nfhz;L tUtjw;F mNef CopaHfs; Njitg;gl;ldH. CopaHfSf;Fg; gapw;rp Njitg;gl;lJ. vdNt Copak; nra;jpl Kd; tUNthupd; vz;zpf;ifia mjpfg;gLj;jp> mtHfSf;Fg; gapw;rp nfhLf;f Ntjrh];jpug;ghlrhiy xd;W Kjy;Kjy; juq;fk;ghbapy; 23.10.1716y; Vw;gLj;jpdhH. ,jw;F nrkpndwp vd;W ngaH. ,q;F gapw;rp ngw;NwhH cgNjrpahHfshfTk; MrpupaHfshfTk; gzp nra;jplyhapdH.

gs;spf;$lq;fs;

jpUf;fila+H> rPHfhop> rpjk;guk;> flY}H ,lq;fspy; gs;spf;$lq;fs; Vw;gLj;jpdhH. mt;tl;lhuj;J kf;fs; ,jdhy; ngUk; ed;ikaile;jdH.

nrhf;fehjd; FLk;gk;

rPfd;ghy;f; ,e;jpahtpw;F jpUk;gp te;jJk; VO FLk;gj;jpdH Qhd];ehdk; ngw;Wf;nfhs;s tpz;zg;gpj;jdH. ,tHfsJ tpz;zg;gj;ij Vw;Wf;nfhz;L mtHfis Ntj mwptpy; guPl;rpj;J rPfd;ghy;f; ,tHfs; midtUf;Fk; Qhd];ehdk; nfhLj;jhH. ,jpy; flY}iur; NrHe;j nrhf;fehjdpd; FLk;gKk; xd;whFk;.

rptngUkhs; nrl;bahH

rPfd;ghy;f;fpd; Copaj;jpd;%yk; fpwp];Jit Vw;Wf;nfhz;L fpwp];jtuhdhH. rptngUkhs; nrl;bahH. ,tuJ Qhd];ehdg; ngaH me;jpNuah. ,tH rPfd;ghy;f; kPz;Lk; ,e;jpahtpw;F te;jNghJ> mtUf;F Copaj;jpy; ngupJk; cjtpahapUe;jhH.

kiyag;gd;

rPfd;ghy;f;fpd; flw;gpuahzj;jpd;NghJ Gjpa Vw;ghl;ilj; jkpohf;fk; nra;a cjtpahapUe;jtH kiyag;gd;. ,tH cz;ikAs;s njhz;lH. tpRthrj;jpy; epiyj;jpUe;jtH (Kd;dH $wg;gl;Ls;sJ).

uhag;gd;

jiyKb rpq;fhupf;Fk; njhopyhsp. fpwp];Jit Vw;Wf;nfhz;L fpwp];jtuhdhH. jpBnud Neha;tha;g;gl;L kupj;Jg;Nghdhh; (Kd;dH $wg;gl;Ls;sJ).

Kjypag;gd;

rPfd;ghy;f;fpw;F Kjd; Kjy; jkpo; fw;Wf;nfhLj;j KJngUk; jkpowpQH. rPfd;ghy;f;f;if jiuapy; tpuyhy; vOjg; gof;Ftpj;j gpd;dH jkpo;r; Rtbfisg; gbj;jplf; fw;Wf;nfhLj;jhH. ,k;KjpatH ,e;J rkaNk kpfr; rpwe;jnjd vz;zk; nfhz;bUe;jtH. Mdhy;> rPfd;ghy;f;NfhL Vw;gl;lj; njhlHghy; mt;ntz;zk; rpwpJ rpwpjhf kq;fpaJ. rPfd;ghy;f;fpd; gpurq;fq;fisAk; FzrPyq;fisAk; Cd;wpf; ftdpj;J te;j Kjypag;gd;> jd; khHf;fj;ijtpl fpwp];J khHf;fj;jpy; rpwg;G kpf cs;sJ. fpwp];JTf;F xg;ghdtH xUtUkpy;iy vd;gjidf; fz;Lnfhz;lhH. fpwp];J khHf;fNk rj;jpakhHf;fk; vd;gjid njsptha;f; fz;Lnfhz;lhH. vdNt fpwp];Jit Vw;Wf;nfhz;L fpwp];jtuhdhH.

mofg;gd;

muR nkhop ngaHg;ghsuhf ,Ue;j xUtupd; ngaHjhd; mofg;gd;. ,tiu mofg;gd; vd;W gpwH mioj;jdH. rPfd;ghy;f; jkpo; gbj;jpl mofg;gdpd; cjtpAk; fpilj;jJ. ,tH NghHj;Jf;fPrpa nkhop> n[Hkd; nkhop> Nldp\; nkhop> lr;R nkhop Mfpatw;iwf; fw;wpUe;j NguwpQH. ,UtUk; fpwp];Jit Vw;Wf;nfhz;L fpwp];j tuhapdH. gy nkhopfisg; gbj;jpUe;j ,g;NguwpQH jkpoH vd;gij mwpAk;NghJ cs;sk; NgUtif milfpwjy;yth!

rpd;dg;gps;is

MWKfk; gps;isapd; jk;gp fpwp];Jit Vw;Wf;ndfhz;L fpwp];JTf;fhf cioj;jpl jd; nysfPf Ntiyfis cjwp vwpe;jhH. cgNjrpahuha; ey;Y}opak; nra;J ,t;Tyf Xl;lj;ij Kbj;jhH.

MWKfk; gps;is

,tH rPfd;ghy;f;fplk; Qhd];ehdk; ngw;w nrhf;fehjg;gps;isapd; kfd;. ,tH MNuhd; vd;W Qhd];ehdg; ngaH ngw;whH. jplfhj;jpukhd thypgd;. Qhd];ehdk; ngWk;NghJ taJ ,UgJ.

MWKfk; gps;is khHf;f tp\aq;fspy; xU jPtputhjp vdyhk;. Qhd];ehdk; ngWk; Kd;dH ,e;J khHf;fj;jpy; vj;Jiz msT gw;ws;stuhapUe;jhNuh> mjid tplg; gd;klq;F gw;ws;stuha; fpwp];JTf;Fj; njhz;lhw;w MHtKs;stuhdhH.

,tH fpwp];Jit Vw;Wf;nfhz;L nka;f;fpwp];jtuhdJk; ed;elf;ifapYk; mwptpYk; rpwe;J fhzg;gl;lhH. ,tuJ MHtKk;> nray; jpwDk;> gf;jp tho;f;ifAk; rPfd;ghy;f;fpd; kdjpy; ey;ynjhU ,lj;ijg; gpbj;jf;nfhz;ld. vdNt ,tiug; Nghjfuhf epakpf;f tpUk;gpdhH. mjw;fhfg; gapw;rp ngw;wplr; nra;jhH. gpd;dH 1733k; Mz;L brk;gH khjk; 28k; Njjp mtH NghjfhgpN\fk; nra;ag;gl;lhH.

,tiu midtUk; md;Gld; MNuhd; ehl;ilaH vd;W miof;fyhapdH.

MNuhd; vd;w MWKfkK gps;is Kjy; ,e;jpag; NghjfH. jkpoHfspNy xUtHjhd; ,e;jpahtpy; Kjy; NghjfuhdhH vd;gJ jkpoH ,dj;jpw;Nf ngUik jUfpw kfpo;r;rp nfhLf;fpw xU nra;jpay;yth?

,Wjpg; gazk;

Vw;nfdNt Neha; nfhz;l cliyAila rPfd;ghy;f; Xa;tpd;wp cioj;jikahy; Nehapd; nfhLik mjpfupf;fyhapw;W. Mdhy; kde;jsutpy;iy. Neha; nfhz;l clypYk; jplcWjpahd kdk; ,Uf;Fk;. cj;jk cd;djf; fpwp];J ,t;tpjkhNdhiuAk; cgNahfpf;fpwhH vd;gjw;F rPfd;ghy;f; XH mj;jhl;rp. gzpapid ,tH njhlHe;J nra;Jnfhz;NlapUe;jhH.

,tuJ gzp kpf tpupthd gzp vd;W epHthff; FOj;jiytuha; Nfhg;gd;Nffd; efupypUe;j FWfpa Nehf;fKila ntd;l; Fw;wk; rhl;bdhH. rPfd;ghy;f;fpd; Copak; gutyha; eilngw;Wg; gad;jUtijr; rfpj;jpl Kbahj cs;sj;jpduha; ntd;l; ,tHkPJ xd;wd;gpd; xd;whfg; gy Fw;wr;rhl;Lf;fisf; $wplyhdhH.

Fw;wr;rhl;Lfs;

Nldp\; kp\Df;F (fy;Ny kp\d;) tPL thq;fpaJ Fw;wk;.

gs;spf;$lq;fs; Vw;gLj;jpaJ Fw;wk;.

mdhijaH ,y;yk; Muk;gpj;jJ Fw;wk;.

kp\Df;Fg; Giuaplk; thq;fpaJ Fw;wk;.

Myak; mikj;jJ Fw;wk;.

Ntjghlrhiy Vw;gLj;jpaJ Fw;wk;.

fhfpjj; njhopw;rhiy vw;glf; fhuzkhapUe;jJ Fw;wk;.

mr;rfk; Vw;gLj;jpaJ Fw;wk;.

Gj;jfk; ntspapl;lJ Fw;wk;.

jkpoUf;Fj; njhz;L nra;jJ Fw;wk;.

jkpoUf;Ff; fpwp];Jit cgNjrpj;jJ Fw;wk;.

,itnay;yhk; Fw;wk;jhdh ,y;iyah vd ePq;fNs jPHg;gspAq;fs;.

 

 

rPfd;ghy;f; ,f;Fw;wr; rhl;Lf;fisAk; Rke;J nfhz;L kde;jsuhJ gzpGupe;jhH. vdpDk; kD\Pfj;jpy; rw;Wf; ftiynfhz;lhH. Vw;nfdNt mtuplk; jQ;rk; GFe;j Nehapd; njhy;iy mjpfupj;jJ. md;dhupd; epiyik Nkhrkhapw;W. 1718k; Mz;L fpwp];k]; jpdj;ijnahl;b mjpf RftPdkile;jhH. Mdhy; mtiuf; nfhz;L ,d;dKk; rpy fhupaq;fisr; nra;a Ntz;bapUe;jikahy; fHj;jH Rfkspj;jhH. cgNahfpj;jhH. vdNt fpwp];k];> GJtUl Muhjidfspy; cw;rhfkha;g; gpurq;fpj;jhH.

gpd;dH kWgbAk; RftPdk; mjpfupj;jJ. kuzk; rPf;fukha; rk;gtpf;Fk; vd;gij czHe;j rPfd;ghy;f;> FUd;l;yH Iauplk; vy;yhg; nghWg;GfisAk; xg;gilj;jhH.

ruPu ngytPdj;jpd;NghJk; jpdKk; fhiyapYk; khiyapYk; FLk;g n[gk; elj;Jtij epWj;jtpy;iy. Mk;! vd;Wk; Nghy; md;W> ngg;utup khjk; 23k; Njjp fhiyapyYk; (1719) FLk;g n[gk; elj;jpdhH. gpd; xd;gJ kzpf;F %r;Rj; jpzWtij czHe;jhH. kuzk; NeupLtjw;fhd mwpFwp Njhd;wpaJ. rPfd;ghy;f;fpd; %d;W gps;isfSk; kidtpAk; R+o ,Ue;J fz;zPH nghope;J nfhz;bUe;jdH. FUz;l;yUk; kidtpahUk; te;jdH. cUf;fkha; n[gpj;jdH.

me;j Ntisapy; mtH jd; fz;fis %bathNw mNjh> mq;Nf xU ntspr;rk; Njhd;WfpwNj! mnjd;d? mt;ntspr;rk; vd; fz;fSf;F mofhfj; Njhd;Wfpd;wJ vd;W $wpdhH. rw;W Neuk; eprg;jk; eptpaJ. gpd;dH R+o ,Ue;jtHfsplk; vd;id kPl;Lj; jhq;fpa vd;w ghliyg; ghLkhW nrhd;dhH.

mtHfs; ghbdH> gpd; vd;id ehw;fhypapy; cl;fhu itAq;fs; vd;whH. ehw;fhypapy; cl;fhu itj;jdH.

Mk;! cl;fhHe;jthW guk v[khdplk; nrd;W tpl;lhH. mLj;j ehs; mtUila rlyk; Gjpa vUrNyk; Myaj;jpy; mlf;fk; nra;ag;gl;lJ.

rpyehl;fSf;Fg; gpd; FUz;lyH kupj;jhH. ,UtuJ kuzj;jpw;Fk; ntd;l; vd;ghH fhuzkhapUe;jhH vd;W nrhy;yg;gLfpwJ.

டேவிட் பிரெய்னார்ட்

kp\dwp tPudhf khwpa ngytPd ,isQd; Nltpl; gpnua;dhHl;

david brainerd

(1718 - 1747)

Nltpl; th! tdj;jpw;Fs; nrd;W ehk; tpisahb kfpo;r;rpailayhk; vd;W ez;gHfs; mioj;jjw;F> rpWtd; Nltpl; mtHfNshL NghfKbahjtdha; kuj;jpd;fPo; cl;fhHe;jpUe;jhd;. mtd; ngytPd ruPuk; cilatd;. tPur;nray;fis mtdhy; vLj;Jr; nra;aKbahJ. Nltpl;bd; ez;gHfs; GJmDgtq;fisAk;> rhjidfisAk; Njbj; jpupAk;NghJ> mtdhy; mtHfNshL nry;y Kbahjtdha; mtHfisNa ghHj;Jf; nfhz;bUe;jhd;. Vd; mj;jid ,isj;j clk;G? vg;NghJk; kuj;Jz;bd; kPJ cl;fhHe;J kw;w ez;gHfspd; tpisahl;Lfs;> jPur; nray;fs; ,itfisj;jhd; ghHj;Jf;nfhz;L ,Uf;fNtz;LNkh? flTspd; Nkyhd rpj;jj;ij rpWtd; Nltpl; mg;NghJ mwpahjpUe;jhd;.

rpWtd; Nltpl;

Nltpl; gpnua;dhHl; 1718k; Mz;L Vg;uy; khjk; 20k; Njjp mnkupf;f If;fpa ehLfspy; gpwe;jtd;. kpfTk; ,isj;j nkypthd rpWtdhff; fhzg;gl;lhd;. mtd; kw;wg; igad;fisg;Nghy Xb Mb tpisahl tpisahl KbahJ. mtdpy; fhzg;gl;l kpf mikjyhd Rghtj;jpw;F ,JNt fhuzkhf ,Uf;fyhk;. Muk;g tajpNyNa jd; Mj;j kPl;igg; gw;wpf; ftiyg;gl;ltd;. kupf;fg; gae;jtd;. Mdhy; kfpo;r;rpahapUf;fTk; kupj;j gpd; guNyhfk; nry;yTk; thQ;rpj;j XH ,isQd;. vdpDk; kdk; jpUk;Gjy; vd;dntd;W mtDf;Fj; njupahJ. mtDila 9k; tajpy; jfg;gd; kupj;Jg;NghdhH. 14 tajpy; jd; jhia ,oe;jhd;. rpWtajpNyNa mehijahf tplg;gl;l gpnua;dhH;l; kdk; NrhHe;J Mtpf;Fupa tho;f;ifapd; Nehf;fk; mw;wtdha; fhzg;gl;lhd;.

GJ tho;tiljy;

gpnua;dhHl; thypg tajpy; jd;id jPa ez;gHfsplkpUe;J fhj;Jf;nfhz;lhd;. mjpf Neuk; nIgj;jpy; jupj;jpUe;jhd;. Ntjk; thrpj;J jpahdpg;gjpy; mjpf Neuk; nrytopj;jhd;. xt;nthU QhapW khiyapYk;> kw;w thypgNuhL NrHe;J> Ntj Muha;r;rpapy; <Lgl;lhd;. Mokhd Mtpf;Fupa tho;f;if elj;j Kaw;rpj;jhd;. QhapW khiyapy;> md;W Nfl;l Njtnra;jpia kWgbAk; epidtpy; nfhz;Lte;J Mokha; kdjpy; gjpa itg;ghd;. ,t;tpjk; nra;tjdhy;> jd;dpy; RaePjpia epiyehl;bdhNdad;wp fpwp];Jitj; jd; nrhe;j ,ul;rfuhf mwpe;jpUf;ftpy;iy. jd; kdjpy; nka; rkhjhdj;ijAk; ngw;wpUf;ftpy;iy.

xU ehs; NjtNfhghf;fpid jd;Nky; ,Ug;gjhf czHe;jhH. kdepk;kjpia ,oe;Jtpl;lhH. md;wpypUe;J mDjpdkk; kjNfhl;ghLfis ntF Ihf;fpuijahf mDrupf;f Muk;gpj;Jtpl;lhH. MdhYk; Fw;w czHT mtiu kpfTk; thl;baJ. jd;id iftplg;gl;ltdhf vz;zpdhH. jd; ew;fpupiafspy; rhHe;jpUg;gjpypUe;J mtiu tpLtpj;Jf;nfhs;s Kbatpy;iy. fpwp];JitNa KOtJk; rhHe;J ek;Gtjpy; mtUila RaePjp jilaha; ,Ue;jJ. Kbtpy; J}aMtpahdtH KOikaha; fpwp];Jit Vw;Wf;nfhs;s cjtpnra;jhH. vt;tpj epge;jidAkpd;wp fpwp];Jit Vw;Wf;nfhz;lhH. 21k; tajpy; Gjpa tho;f;ifapy; gpuNtrpj;jhH. kWgpwg;gpd; mDgtj;ijg; ngw;whH.

fy;Y}upg; gbg;G

Vy; fy;Y}upapy; NrHe;J gbf;f gpnua;dhHl; jpl;lkpl;lhH. kWgpwg;gile;j ,uz;lhtJ khjj;jpy; fy;Y}upg; gbg;ig Muk;gpj;jhH. gy Nrhjidfs; kj;jpapy;> J}a tho;f;if elj;j KbahJ vd;W gae;jhH. fHj;jUila thHj;ijia jpahdpj;J nIgj;jpdhYk; mtH mjpfkha; MrPHtjpf;fg;gl;lhH. flTNshL If;fpag;gl mjpf Neuj;ijr; nrytopj;jhH. fpwp];Jitr; Nrtpg;gjpy; mjpf ehl;lk; nfhz;lhH. gbg;gpy; ey;y ftdk; nrYj;jpajhy; mtH rpwg;G khzthdhfj; NjHe;njLf;fg;gl;lhH. ruPu ngytpdj;jhy; Neha;tha;g;gl;L mNefKiw fy;tp fw;gjpy; jil Vw;gl;lJ. xU rkak; fbd gbg;gpdhy; mjpf Neha;tha;g;gl;L> tPl;bw;Fr; nrd;W xa;ntLf;f mDg;gg;gl;lhH. fhrNehapdhy:; gPbf;fg;gl;L ,uj;jk; ff;fpajhy; ngytPdk; Vw;gl;lJ. tpahjpg;gLf;ifapy; fpwp];JNthL mjpf Neuk; nIgpf;f tha;g;gpUe;jJ. flTNshL nfhs;Sk; xU kzp Neu cwtpdhy; tUk; Nguhde;jk; cyf ,d;gq;fisnay;yhk;tpl kpf rpwe;jJ. vt;tsTf;fjpfkha; fpwp];JNthL cs;s ekJ If;fpaj;jpd; ,ufrpaj;ij ehk; fw;Wf;nfhs;fNtz;bajha; ,Uf;fpwJ. vy;yh R+o;epiyfspYk; ntw;wpAs;s fpwp];jt tho;f;if mjdhy; rhj;jpakhfpwJ.

NjtCopaj;jpw;F miog;G

fy;Y}upg; gbg;gpy; %d;whtJ Mz;by; ,Uf;Fk;NghJ> fy;Y}upia tpl;L ntspNaw vjpHghuhj Jau R+o;epiy Vw;gl;lJ. mtuJ tho;f;ifapy; ,J xU ngupa Vkhw;wNk. kw;w rf khztHfs; fy;Y}upg; gbg;ig Kbj;J gl;lq;fisg; ngWk;NghJ mtH jk; ehs; Fwpg;gpy; ,t;thW vOjpajhtJ: ,e;ehspy; ehDk; fy;Y}upapy; gl;lq;fisg; ngw;wpUf;fNtz;Lk;. Mdhy; flTNs mij vdf;Fj; ju kWj;Jtpl;lhH. mNj Neuj;jpy; fpwp];Jit mwpahj kf;fisg;gw;wpa xU kdghuj;ijAk;> ftiyiaAk; fHj;jH nfhLj;jhH vd;gNj. me;jfhuj;jpy; ,Uf;Fk; kf;fisf; Fwpj;J Fwpg;ghf ftiynfhz;lhH. rptg;G ,e;jpaH my;yJ mnkupf;f ,e;jpaHfs; vd miof;fg;gl;l Mjp ,d; kf;fsplj;jpy; jpUg;gzp nra;a kprdwpfs; ,y;iy. mtHfs; fpwp];Jit xUNghJk; mwpe;jpuhjtHfs;. gyKiw jd; ePz;l nIgq;fspy; ,k;kf;fspd; ,ul;rpg;Gf;fhfg; Nghuhb> fpwp];Jtpd; top elj;JjYf;fhff; fhj;jpUe;J ew;nra;jpia vLj;Jr; nry;y Maj;jkhapUe;jhh;.

mnkupf;f ,e;jpaHfsplk; ck;ik kprdwpahf mDg;g tpUk;GfpNwhk;. ck;Kila cjtpia ngupJk; tuNtw;fpNwhk; vd;W epA+NahHf; NghjfH xUtuhy; gpnua;dhHLf;F fbjk; mDg;gg;gl;lJ. clNd kprdwpahfr; nry;y tpUk;gpa gpnua;dhHl; KO ngyj;NjhL fhzg;gltpy;iy. mnkupf;f ,e;jpaHfsplk; kprdwpahfr; nry;YfpwtHfs; mlHe;j fhLfisAk; kpf Mgj;jhd fhl;lhWfisAk; ePNuhilfisAk; fle;J nry;yNtzLk;. ,tH vg;gb ,j;jid Mgj;Jf;fisAk; fle;J nry;thH? flTs; mtiu kprdwpahf mdg;Gthnud;why; mtUf;Fj; Njitahd ngyidAk; ty;yikiaAk; mtH nfhLg;ghH vd;W mtUila ez;gHfs; $wpdhHfs;. mnkupf;f ,e;jpaHfSf;F kprdwpahfr; Nrit nra;a gpnua;dhHl; jd; kdij jplg;gLj;jp jPHkhdpj;Jtpl;lhH.

mnkupf;f ,e;jpaHfs; kj;jpapy; jpUg;gzp

Nltpl; gpnua;dhHl; jd;Dila 24k; gpwe;j ehsd;W ehs; Fwpg;gpy; vd; tho;ehis fpwp];Jtpd; kfpikf;fhf jj;jk; nra;J nrytopf;fg;gl xg;gilf;fpNwd; vd;W Fwpg;gpl;Ls;shH. mLj;j Mz;L mlHe;j fhLfs; kj;jpapy; jdpahf thoe;J> ehfuPfkw;w ,e;jpa kf;fSf;Ff; fpwp];Jit mwptpf;f nrd;Wtpl;lhH. Gj;jfq;fs; $Ljyhf ,Ue;j cilfs; Mfpatw;iw tpw;Wtpl;lhH. ntsp cyfpdpd;W jd;id gpupj;Jf;nfhz;L> kfpo;r;rp juf;$ba me;j xNu ,lj;ij ehbr; nrd;whH. fhLfs;> kiyr;rupTfs; gs;sj;jhf;Ffs; Mfpa ,lq;fspy; tho;e;Jnfhz;bUe;j ,e;jpaHfspd; ,Ug;gplj;jpw;F te;J NrHe;jhH. ehs; Fwpg;gpy; jdf;F Vw;gl;l jPur; nray;fisAk; mg+Ht epfo;r;rpfisAk; Fwpj;Jitf;f Muk;gpj;jhH. ,jpypUe;Jjhd; mtUila td tho;f;ifiag; gw;wpa cz;ikfis mwpe;J nfhs;fpNwhk;.

Mgj;JfSk; fbd tho;f;if KiwAk;

gpnua;dhHl; mtHfs; mNefKiw FspUf;Fk; grpf; nfhLikf;Fk; cl;gl;lhH. tho;f;if trjpfs; xd;iwAk; mtH ngw;wpUf;ftpy;iy. NrhHT> RftPdk;> fbd tho;f;ifKiw ,tw;iwj; jhq;fpf;nfhz;ltuha; jpUg;gzpapy; Kd;Ndwpr; nrd;whH. nfhl;Lk; ngUkioapy; XH ,uT KOtJk; gpuahzk; nra;Jk; xU FbirNah> $lhuNkh> kiwtplNkh mtUf;Fj; njd;gltpy;iy. kpf Mgj;jhd ghijfspy; ele;Jk; > Fjpiuapd;kPJk; gpuahzk; nra;thH. vg;NghJNk mtUf;Fg; gpuahzq;fs; kpFe;j mgj;Jf;fs; epiwe;jjhfNt ,Ue;jd. xUtUk; nrd;wila Kbahj rpy ,d kf;fsplk; nry;Ytjw;fhf kiyfisAk;> nrq;Fj;jhd ghiwfisAk; ,uT Neuq;fspy; flf;fNtz;bajhapUe;jJ. Mgj;Jf;fs; epiwe;j rJg;G epyg;gpuNjrq;fisAk; fle;J nrd;whH. xUehs; fLikahd ,Uspy; jd; nkhopg;ngaHg;ghsUld; xU kiyg; gpuNjrj;ijf; fle;J nry;y Kaw;rpj;jhH. kiyfSf;F fPNo kpf Mokhd kiy mUtpfSk;> MWfSk; gha;e;Jnfhz;bUe;jd. Fjpiufs; jLkhwp jtWkhdhy; gy E}W mbfs; fPNo tpo VJthFk;. Mokhd MWfspy; tpOe;jhYk; jg;g KbahJ. md;W ,utpy; Fjpiuapd;Nky; gpnua;dhHl; gpuahzk;nra;Jnfhz;bUf;Fk;NghJ ghiwfspd; ,Lf;fpy; Fjpiuapd; fhy; rpf;fpf;nfhz;lJ. typ jhq;fKbahky; Fjpiu Jbf;fNt gpnua;dhHl; J}f;fpnawpag;gl;L jiuapy; tpOe;jhH. nja;thjPdkhf fPNo Guz;L XLk; Mw;wpy; tpohky; jg;gpdhH. fl;Lf;flq;fhky; Guz;L XLk; ePH Xilfisf; flf;Fk;NghJ nIgpj;Jf; nfhz;Nl Njt xj;jhiriag; ngw;W ele;Jnry;thH.

 gyKiw mtUf;Nfw;w Mfhuk; fpilf;fhJ. gj;J Kjy; 15 iky;fs; gpuahzg;gl;L xU nuhl;bia thq;f Ntz;bajpUf;Fk;. mg;gb thq;fg;gl;l nuhl;bAk; rhg;gpLKd; Gspg;ghfp G+rzk; g+j;JtpLk;. rpy rkaq;fspy; me;j nuhl;bAk; fpilf;fhky; Ngha;tpLk;. gyiffs;Nky; gug;gp Nghlg;gl;l itf;Nfhy; Gw;fs;kPJ gLj;J cwq;FthH. mjpfj; jdpikapy; ,Ue;jNghJ mtUila nkhopg;ngaHg;ghsUld; khj;jpuk; ciuahl KbAk;. kdg; ghuq;fisg; gfpHe;Jnfhs;Sk; fpwp];jt rNfhjuHfs; mtUf;fpy;iy. mtNuhL nIgpf;fTk; ahUkpy;iy. vdf;Nfh vt;tpj MWjYkpy;iy. vd; midj;J MWjy; NjWjy;fSk; flTsplk; kl;LNk cs;sJ vd;W ehs; Fwpg;gpy; vOjp itj;jpUe;jhH.

rptg;G ,e;jpaHfs;

gpnua;dhHl; jhd; Copak; nra;aj; njupe;Jnfhz;l ,e;jpaHfs; mehfupfkhd Mjpthrpfs;;. %lek;gpf;ifahy; fl;lg;gl;bUe;jhHfs;. gwitfs;> kpUfq;fs;> kuq;fs; > gUt fhyq;fs; Mfpatw;iw tzq;fp te;jdH. mtHfSila tzf;fKiw tpNehjkhdJ. Mjpthrpfs; g+rhupfs;> gpnua;dhHl;bd; kPJ NfhgKw;wdH. mtH rhfTk; Neha;tha;glTk; %lek;gpf;if nray;fshy; Kad;wdH. fl;Lg;gLj;j Kbahj eldq;fs;> kpNyr;rj;jdkhd $r;ry;fs; Nghl;L mtiu tPo;j;j vz;zpdH. mtNuh vt;tpj jPq;Fk; Neuplhky; ijupakha; epd;W> fpwp];JNt mjpfhuKilatH vd;W rhl;rp gfHe;jhH. xU ehs; xU G+rhup Njhy; cil cLj;jp fpspQ;ry;fshYk;> ,iyfshYk; myq;fupj;Jf;nfhz;L mtuplk; te;jhd;. vd;Dila ,d kf;fisr; re;jpj;J mtHfs; g+HtPf kjj;ijNa gpd;gw;wNtz;Lk; vd;W Nghjpg;Ngd; vd;whd;. Nltpl; mtDf;F fpwp];Jitg; gpurq;fpj;jhH. me;j Kjpa g+rhup kpff; ftdkha; Nfl;lhd;. cs;sj;jpy; czHj;jg;gl;ltdha; ,dp guNyhfg; gpjhit khj;jpuk; Nrtpg;Ngd; vd;W jPHkhdpj;jhd;.

rptg;gpe;jpa kf;fsplk; gutr eldk epfo;r;rp xd;W cz;L. mJNt mtHfl;F mjpf cw;rhfj;ijj; jUk; NghH eldkhFk;. ntl;l ntspapy; ngUe;jPia tsHj;J mijr; Rw;wpYk; eldkhLk; epfo;r;rpahFk;. ,sk; NghH tPuHfSk;> tNahjpg g+rhupfSk;> jPiar; Rw;wp Rw;wp tUthHfs;. Rthiy cau vOk;Gk;NghJ> Fjpj;J eldk; GupthHfs;. Ngupiur;rYk; $r;rYk; ,Uf;Fk;. XH ,uT KOtJk; eldkhb fspg;gH. gyKiw Nltpl;l ,e;eld fhl;rpia kiwe;jpUe;jthNu ghHj;Jf;nfhz;bUg;ghH. mLj;jehs; mtHfSf;F RtpNrrj;ij mwptpg;ghH.

fz;zPNuhL nra;j NritAk; jpUg;gzpAk;

vz;zw;w ,ilA+Wfs; Vw;gl;Lk;> gpnua;dhHl; vg;gbahtJ mnkupf;f ,e;jpaHfs; ,ul;rpf;fg;glNtz;Lnkd;W thQ;rpj;jhH. kpFe;j fupridNahL jdpahNt fhLfSf;Fs; nrd;W gy kzpNeuk; ,k; kf;fspd; ,ul;rpg;Gf;fhf nIgpg;ghH. mOifNahL kdg;ghuj;Jld; kd;whLthH. mNefKiw cgthrpj;J nIgpg;gJKz;L. rpy rkaq;fspy; mtUf;Nfw;gLk; gyj;j vjpHg;Gf;ifsj; jhq;fKbahjtuha; kdr;NrhHT miltJKz;L. xU rkak; jd; ehs; Fwpg;gpy; vdf;F ve;j xU fhupaKk; Kf;fpak; tha;e;jjhfj; njuptjpy;iy. vd;Dila ,ja J}a;ikAk; Nga; mbikj;jdj;jpy; thOk; kf;fSila khw;wKNk mjpf Kf;fpak; tha;e;jjhff; fUJfpNwd; vd;Wk; kw;nwhU Kiw vt;tplj;jpy; vt;tpjk; tho;e;Njd; vd;gijg;gw;wp vdf;F mf;fiwapy;iy> vd;ndd;d cgj;jputq;fisf; fle;JNghNdd; vd;gijg;gw;wpAk; vdf;Ff; ftiyapy;iy. mdhy; fpwp];JTf;nfd;W Mj;Jkhf;fis Mjhag;gLj;jpNdd; vd;gNj gpujhdk;. ,JNt vd; tho;f;ifapd; Fwpf;NfhSk; Nehf;fKkhFk; vd;W Fwpg;gpl;Ls;shH.

kpFe;j ruPu RftPdj;jpYk; ghL Jd;gq;fs; kj;jpapYk; mtUila jpUg;gzp njhlHe;jJ. xU rkak; ntl;l ntspapy; jq;fp cwq;fpajhy; mjpf RftPdk; mile;jhH. fha;r;rYk; ruPu NtjidAk; kpFjpahdjpdhy;> ,uj;jk; mtH thapdpd;W ntspg;gl;lJ. mNefkhf kzuj;ij neUq;fptpl;lhH. MdhYk; xU thuj;jpw;Fg; gpd; Nltpl;bd; cly;epiy Njwp jd; gzpiaj; njhluKbe;jJ. xt;nthU ehspYk; gpurq;fk; nra;J Kbj;jTld; mjpf fisg;Gld; fhzg;gLthH. fha;r;ry; mjpfkhFk;. vJTk; nra;a ,ayhjtuha;g; gLj;JtpLthH. mjpfkhf ,uj;jk; ff;f NeupLk; ,g;gbNa mtH tho;f;ifapd; ngyd; rpwpJ rpwpjhf Fd;wpg;Ngha; ,e;jpaHfis mtH Nerpj;jjpdhy; mtHfSila ,ul;rpg;Gf;nfd;W jd;idNa gypahf thHj;Jtpl;lhH.

mtUf;F kw;w gy ew;Fzq;fs; gzpnra;a fpilj;jd. ,g;gbg; ghLfs; epiwe;j tho;f;ifia Nkw;nfhs;s Ntz;Lkh? nrhe;j efUf;F mUfhikapNy trjpAs;s ngupa rigapd; Nghjfuhfg; gzpahw;w miog;Gg; ngw;whH. trjpAs;s rigfis tpUk;gpr; nrd;wpUf;fyhk;. cgj;jputq;fs; epiwe;j rptg;gpe;jpaHfs; Nritf;F jd;id mHg;gzpf;fhjpUe;jpUe;jhy; cyfk; Nltpl;ilg; gw;wp Nfs;tpg;gl;bUf;fNt KbahJ.

gyd;fs;

fz;tPNuhNl tpijf;fpwtHfs; nfk;gPuj;NjhNl mWg;ghHfs; (rq;.126:5) vd;w flTspd; thf;Fg;gb mNef ehl;fs; ,uTk; gfYk; gpuahrg;gl;L cioj;j mtUila gzp gyd;ju Muk;gpj;jJ. cgthr nIgq;fSk;> fz;zPuPd; Ntz;Ljy;fSk; fdpnfhLf;f Muk;gpj;jd. gupRj;j MtpahdtH ty;yikaha; fpupia nra;a Muk;gpj;J> mtHNky; ,wq;fpdhH. gpnua;dhHl; gpurq;fpj;j vy;yh ,lq;fspYk; cs;s rptg;G ,e;jpaiuAk; MtpahdtH Ml;nfhz;lhH. gupRj;j Mtpahdtupd; kfh ty;yikahd nray;fs; 1745k; Mz;L ,e;jpaHfs; kj;jpapy; eilngw;wd. jPa ght tho;f;ifapy; tho;e;J RtpNrrj;ij vjpHj;j midtUk; ght czHr;rp ngw;W kdk; khwp fpwp];Jit Vw;Wf;nfhz;ldH. INuhg;gpa nts;is ,dj;jtHfSk; ,t;tw;Gj Copaj;ijf; fhz te;jhHfs;. gpnua;dhHl; rptg;G ,e;jpaUf;F vd;djhd; $WfpwhH vd;W ghHf;f te;j INuhg;gpaUk; kde;jpUk;gp fpwp];Jit Vw;Wf;nfhz;ldH. xUehs; rptg;G ,e;jpa ,sk;ngz; xUts; mw;Gj kdkhw;wk; eilngWfpw epfo;r;rpia mwpa mtyha; gpnua;dhHl; ,Ue;j ,lj;ij Njb te;jhs;. gpnua;dhHl; mtSf;F jhd; gpurq;fpj;J te;j fpwp];JNt cz;ikahd xNu nja;tk; vd;Wk;> kde;jpUk;Gjy; ek;ik J}atho;Tf;F topelj;Jk; vd;Wk; $wpdhH. mtNsh Nfypahf rpuj;J mtiug; gupahrk; gz;zpdhs;. vd;whYk; mtH elj;jpd $l;lj;jpy; gq;Fnfhz;lhs;. kpff; ftdkha; ew;nra;jpiaf; Nfl;fNt ght czHr;rp ngw;W mo Muk;gpj;jhs;. mtshy; cl;fhuNth epw;fNth Kbatpy;iy. mj;jidf;fjpfkha; ght czHT mts; epiyikia vLj;Jf;fhl;baJ. Kbtpy; fpwp];Jitj; jd; nrhe;j ,ul;rfUk; Mz;ltUkhf Vw;Wf;nfhz;lhs;. fHj;jUila fpUig ,uf;fq;fSf;fhf mOJ Gyk;GtJk; rptg;G ,e;jpa kf;fs; rj;jkpl;L mOJ ght czHT miltJk; gpnua;dhHl; elj;jpa vy;yh $l;lq;fspYk; eilngw;w fhl;rpahf mike;jJ. kiyf; fhLfspy; tho;e;J te;j vy;yh rptg;gpe;jpa ,d kf;fSk; Vuhskha; te;J gpnua;dhHl; mtUila gpurq;fj;ijf; ftdkha; Nfl;ldH. flTSila Gj;jfj;ijAila nts;isg; gpurq;fpahH vd;W mtH vy;yhuhYk; mwpag;gl;lhH. rpWtHfs; te;J mtH $Wtijf; Nfl;ldH.

kpff; FWfpa tho;f;if

Nltpl; gpnua;dhHl; 29 taJ epuk;gpatuhdhH. ,Uz;l FspH fhLfspy; jpUg;gzp nra;a jd;id mHg;gzpj;jNghJ jhd; mjpf ehs; capHthoKbahJ vd;gJ mtUf;F ed;whfj; njupAk;. ew;nra;jpiaf; Nfs;tpg;glhj rptg;gpe;jpaUf;Fr; RtpNrrj;ij mwptpg;gJ jd; flik. ruPu Rfj;ijtpl gpujhdkhdJ vd;Wk; fUjpdhH. ,t;tpjk; jd; Rfj;ijg; nghUl;gLj;jhJ ciog;gpy; <Lgl;ljpdhy; vd;WNk Rfg;gLj;j Kbahj fhrNehapd; gpbapy; rpf;fpdhH. rpWJ rpwpjhf mtUila IPt ,uj;jk; nfhl;lg;gl;lJ. kug;gLf;ifapy; gLj;jpUf;Fk;NghJ jhq;fKbahj ruPuNtjidiaAk; Jauj;ijAk; rfpj;jhH. filrp Neuj;jpYk; jd; rNfhjudplk; rptg;G ,e;jpaupd; Mtpf;Fupa tho;f;if Nkk;ghl;ilf; Fwpj;Nj ciuahbf;nfhz;bUe;jhH. rptg;gpe;jpaiu mt;tstha; Nerpj;J md;G $He;jhH. tug;NghFk; fpwp];J ,NaRitg; gw;wpa rpe;ijAk; epidTk; vg;NghJk; mtH kdjpy; epiyj;J epd;wJ. kpf nky;ypa Fuypy; epr;rakhfNt fpwp];J tug;NghfpwhH. jhkjk; nra;ahH. ehDk; NjtJ}jNuhL NrHe;J vd; Njtid kfpikg;gLj;JNtd; vd;W NgrpdhH. mt;thW mtH Ngrpf;nfhz;bUf;Fk;NghNj 1747k; Mz;L mf;NlhgH 9k; ehs; 29k; tajpy; Nltpl; gpnua;dhHl; jhd; Nrtpj;J te;j Mz;ltiuj; juprpf;fTk; kfpikg;gLj;jTk; NjtJ}jNuhL NrHe;J Jjpj;J MHg;gupf;fTk; fpwp];Jtpd; r%fj;ij mile;jhH.

kpff; FWfpa tho;Nt MdhYk; mJ KOtJk; Mz;ltUf;nfd;W mHg;gzpf;fg;gl;l tho;T. me;j tho;f;if vj;jid ehs; IPtpj;jpUe;jNjh mj;jid ehl;fSk; g+uz cgNahfKk; MrPHthjKkhfj; jj;jk; nra;ag;gl;lJ. mtH kupj;j gpd;Dk; mtUila tho;f;if tuyhW ehs;Fwpg;gpd; thapyhf mwpag;gl;L czug;gl;ld. ,tiug; gpd;gw;wp tpy;ypak; Nfup> nfd;wp khHl;bd; Mfpa jiyrpwe;j kprdwpfs; may;ehLfspy; mUl;gzpahsHfshfj; jq;fis xg;Gf; nfhLj;jdH. kprdwpg; gzpf;nfd ePAk; cd;idj; jj;jk; nra;thah?

வில்லியம் கேரி

tpy;ypak; Nfup

carey

(1760 - 1834)

tpy;ypak; Nfup Ntj Gj;jfj;ijg; gy nkhopfspy; nkhopngaHj;J> cyfpd; %d;wpy; xU gFjpf;Ff; nfhLj;J cjtpaH. ,d;iwa kprdwp ,af;fq;fspd; je;ij vd;w epiyia mile;jtH tpy;ypak; Nfup vd;W mtiu mtuJ rpW tPl;by; nrUg;G nrg;gdpLk; thypgdhff; fz;ltHfs; vtUk; vjpHghHj;jpUf;fkhl;lhHfs;.

rpWtdhd Nfup

tpy;ypak; Nfup rpWtdhf ,Uf;Fk;NghNj jd;Dila tplhKaw;rpf;F XH vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf tpsq;fpdhH. xU jPur; nraiy nra;a Muk;gpj;J mij tplhJ njhlHe;J nra;J Kbg;ghH. jPur;nray;fspy; kpfTk; tpUg;gk; nfhz;ltH. xUKiw xU kuj;jpd; cr;rpapy; ,Uf;Fk; FUtpf;$l;il Muha;e;J ghHg;gjw;fhf mth; kuj;jpy; VwpaNghJ mtH tOf;fp fPNo tpOe;jhH. fuk; fhy;fspy; mbgl;l mtUf;Ff; fl;Lfs; Nghl;L mtiu mtuJ jhahH gLf;ifapNy gLf;f itj;jhH. Mdhy; rpWtdhd NfupapdhNy Njhy;tpia Vw;Wf;nfhs;sKbatpy;iy. mtH kWgbAk; nrd;W kuj;jpy; Vw me;jf; FUtpapd; $l;ilf; ifapy; nfhz;LtUtij mtH jhahH fz;lhH.

tpy;ypak; tpisahl;Lg; Nghl;bfspYk;> gpuahzk; nra;tjpYk; mjpf tpUk;gk; nfhz;ltH. Gjpa epyg; gFjpfisf; fz;L gpbf;Fk; Muha;r;rpahsuhd nfhyk;g]; vd;gtiuj; jd; tho;f;ifapd; ,yl;rpaj;jiytuhff; nfhz;L mtiug; gw;wp Nfup Gfo;e;J NgRtJz;L. MfNt mtUld; goFk; rpWtHfs; mtUf;F nfhyk;g]; vd;W gl;lg;ngaH ,l;L mioj;jdH. ,aw;ifia kfpTk; Nerpf;Fk; rpWtdhf ,Ue;jhH. Mq;fhq;Nf jhd; fhZk; gwitfs;> g+r;rpfs;> nrbfs; Kjypatw;iw vLj;J mitfis Muha;e;J ghHg;gJk; cz;L. Mdhy; mtH jPur; nray;fisAk; gpuahzq;fisAk; Fwpj;j Gj;jfq;fis kpfTk; tpOk;gpg; gbg;gtuhf ,Ue;jhH. gy nkhopfisg; gbj;Jf;nfhs;tjpNy tpUg;gKk; mf;fiwAk; fhl;Lgtuhf Nfup tpsq;fpdhH. rpWtdhf ,Uf;Fk;NghNj yj;jPd; nkhopia mtH gbf;f Muk;gpj;Jtpl;lhH.

nrUg;Gj; ijf;Fk; nrk;khd; Nfup

gd;dpuz;L taJ rpWtdha; ,Uf;Fk;NghJ Nfup jd; gs;spg;gbg;ig epWj;jptpl;lhH. mtH gjpd;dhd;F tajhf ,Uf;Fk;NghJ mtUila je;ijahH nrUg;Gj;ijf;Fk; nrk;khd; xUtUf;F cjtpahsdhf Nfupia mkHj;jpdhH. me;j ehl;fspNy Nfupf;F khHf;f rk;ge;jkhd fhupaq;fspy; rpWJ tpUg;gk; ,y;yhjpUe;jJ. mtH XH Myaj;jpd; ghlfH FOtpNy NrHe;J ghly;fisg; ghbdhH. xU rpwe;j fpwp];j FLk;gj;jpNy mtH gpwe;jpUe;jhH vd;gnjy;yhk; cz;ikjhd;> Mdhy; jdJ ghlfH ez;gHfSld; NrHe;J gy rkak; jtwhf MizapLtJ> ngha; nrhy;tJ> fPo;j;jukhd fijfisg; NgRtJ ,itfspy; mtH tpUg;gk; fhl;bdhH. thHL vd;Dk; thypgd; mtNuhL rf gapw;rpahsdhf nrUg;Gf; filapy; gapw;rp ngw;W te;jhd;. thHbd; Mokhd mirf;fKbahj fpwp];jt IPtpaj;jpd; ew;rhl;rp tpy;ypak; Nfupapidj; njhl;lJ. tpy;ypak; mt;tg;NghJ nIgpf;f Muk;gpj;jhH. xUKiw tpy;ypak; jd;Dila vIkhddpd; ehzak; xd;wpid vLj;Jr; nrytopj;Jtpl;L mjw;Fg; gjpyhf XH cile;j nry;yhj ehzaj;ij itj;Jtpl;lhH. Mdhy; mtUila vIkhd; mijf; fz;Lgpbj;J vy;yhUf;Fk; Kd;ghf mtiu mtkhdg;gLj;jptpl;lhH. ,e;j mDgtk; Nfup jd; ,jaj;ij Mz;ltUf;F xg;Gf;nfhLf;f elj;jpaJ. tpy;ypak; ghtj;ijf; Fwpj;J Mokhf czHj;jg;gl;lhH. ,ij mwpe;j mtUila NghjfH mtiu mioj;J ,NaR fpwp];Jitj; jd; tho;f;ifapy; Vw;Wf;nfhs;tjpd; %ykhf kl;LNk mtH gps;isahf KbAk; vd;gij mtUf;F tptupj;jhH. mJ kl;Lky;y> ey;y gps;isahf tho;f;if elj;JtNjh> my;yJ xOq;fhf Myaj;jpw;Fr; nry;YtNjh xUtid fpwp];Jtpd; gps;isahf khw;whJ vd;gijAk; mtUf;Fj; njspthf tptupj;jhH. ,itfs; vy;yhtw;iwAk; Nfl;f Nfl;f mtH kpfTk; Mokhfj; njhlg;gl;lgbapdhNy kpfTk; mjpfkhff; fjwp mOjhH. kdNtjid mile;J mtH Koq;fhypy; epd;W fHj;juhfpa ,NaR fpwp];JNt> vd;Dila cs;sj;jpy; te;J vd;Dila ghtq;fs; vy;yhtw;iwAk; fOtpaUSk;. ,g;NghJjhNd ehd; ck;ik Vw;Wf;nfhs;s Maj;jkhf ,Uf;fpNwd; vd;W $wpdhH. mg;NghNj ,NaR fpwp];J mtUila ,Ujaj;jpy; te;jhH. mtH GJ rpU];bahf khw;wg;gl;lhH.

tpy;ypak; Gjpa nrUg;Gfisj; ijg;gJk; gioaitfisg; gOJ ghHg;gJkhd NtiyNahL epy;yhky; ,q;fpyhe;J Njrj;jpy; cs;s Nkhy;ld; vd;Dk; gl;lzj;jpd; xU rpw;whyaj;jpy; Nghjfuhff; gzp Vw;whH. ,NaR fpwp];Jtpd; ,uhI;aj;ij tpuptilar; nra;tNj vd;Dila Kjd;ikahd gzp vd;Wk;> ehd; nrUg;Gfisr; nrg;gdpLtJk;> nrUg;Gfisj; ijg;gJk; vd;Dila nrytpd; Njitfisg; g+Hj;jp nra;tjw;F kl;LNk vd;Wk; mtH mbf;fb $wpf;nfhs;tJ cz;L. mtH nrUg;Gfisj; ijj;Jf; nfhz;bUf;Fk;NghJ mth gf;fj;jpNy xU Gj;jfj;ij itj;J thrpj;Jf;nfhz;bUg;ghH. ,t;tpjkhf mth fpNuf;F> ,yj;jPd; nkhopfisf; fw;whH. ,J kl;Lky;yhky; mtH vgpnuA > gpnuQ;R> ,j;jhyp> lr;R mfpa nkhopfisAk; fw;gjw;fhf 15 fpNyhkPl;lH J}uk; elf;fTk; Kd;te;jhH.

Nghjfuhd tpy;ypak;

Nfg;ld; Ff; vd;gtUila flw;gazq;fs; vd;W nrhy;yg;gLk; xU Gj;jfj;ij tpy;ypak; Nfup gbj;jjd; %ykhf njd;fly; jPTfspy; mNefkhapuk; kf;fSf;F ew;nra;jp mwptpf;fg;glNtz;ba mtrpaj;ij me;ehl;fspy; czHe;jhH. jhNd xU ngupa cyfg;glj;ij tiue;J> mijr; nrUg;G ijf;Fk; jd;Dila gl;liwapd; Rtw;wpNy khl;b itj;J> mjpy; cs;s xt;nthU Njrj;jpYk; kf;fs; njhifiaAk; me;j kf;fisg; gw;wpa Fwpg;GfisAk; mjpNy Fwpj;J itj;jpUe;jhH. xt;nthU ehs; fhiyapYk; mtH ,j; Njrg;glj;jpw;F Kd;ghf Koq;fhy;gbapl;L> mjpNy cs;s fpwp];J my;yhj Njrq;fspd; kf;fSf;fhf nIgpf;f Muk;gpj;jhH. ,t;tpjkhf nIgpg;gjd; %yk; Mz;ltUila ew;nra;jpia vLj;Jr; nry;yNtz;Lnkd;w xU epue;jukhd ghuk; mtUila cs;sj;jpy; vOe;jJ. ,NaR fpwp];Jitg; gw;wp mwpahj kf;fSf;fhf nIgpf;f xU nIgf;FOit Nfup mikj;jhH. NkYk; kprdwp gzpfSf;fhd Njitfs; gw;wp jd; cld; CopaHfSld; gfpHe;J nfhz;lhH. ,itfisg; gw;wp mtH njhlHe;J vOjpdhH. XH CopaHfSila $l;lj;jpNy Nfup ghuk; epiwe;j cs;sj;NjhL vOe;J epd;W Mz;ltiu mwpahjtHfs; kj;jpapNy RtpNrrk; mwptpf;fg;glNtz;baJ ekJ flik. mij ehk; fl;lhakhfg; guprPypf;fNtz;Lk; vd;W mtH nrhd;dNghJ> xU taJ KjpHe;j CopaH vOe;J kpfTk; rj;jkhf thypgNd eP cl;fhU> flTs; kf;fis kdk; jpUk;gr; nra;aNtz;Lnkd;why; ek;Kila cjtpapd;wpNa mtuhy; mijg; gupg+uzkhfr; nra;KbAk; vd;W kpfTk; Nfhgkhff; $wpdhH. ,jd; %ykhf jd; cld; CopaHfSf;F Kd;ghf Nfup kpfTk; mjpfkhf mtkjpf;fg;gl;lhH. ,Ue;jhYk; jd; ,sik njhl;Nl mtH vLj;j ve;jf; fhupaj;ijAk; njhlHe;J Kbf;f Kaw;rp nra;jijg; NghyNt ,e;j Kaw;rpiaAk; mtH tpltpy;iy. njhlHe;J Kaw;rpj;jhH. 1791k; Mz;L tpy;ypak; Nfup Nghjfuhf mgpNrfk; nra;ag;gl;lhH. mtUila cld; NghjfHfs; kj;jpapy; tpy;ypak; Nfup kpfr; rpwe;j Kiwapy; kjpj;Jg; Nghw;wg;gl;lhH. ghg;b];J rig NghjfHfSila Mz;L epiwTf; $l;lk; xd;wpy; 1792k; Mz;by; tpy;ypak; Nfup Mz;ltUila nra;jpiaf; nfhLg;gjw;fhf miof;fg;gl;lhH. flTsplkpUe;J ngupa fhupaq;fis vjpHghH. flTSf;fhf ngupa fhupaq;fis rhjpf;fg;ghH vd;gJ mtUila nra;jpapd; ikakhf ,Ue;jJ. ,e;jf; fUj;Nj mtH tho;f;ifapy; KOtjpYk; Fwpf;NfhshfTk; khwptpl;lJ. ,e;jf; $l;lj;jpd; tpisthf ghg;b];J kprdwp rq;fk; Muk;gpf;fg;gl;lJ. mr;rq;fk; cldbahf xU kprdwpia ntspehl;Lf;F mDg;Gtjw;F Kd;te;jJ.

,e;jpahtpy; tpy;ypak; Nfup

Nfup xU kprdwpahf nry;tjw;fhd top ,g;NghJ jpwe;Jtpl;lJ. Mdhy; vq;F kprdwpahfr; nry;tJ vd;w Nfs;tp vOe;jJ. Nkw;F Mg;gpupf;fh my;yJ njd;fly; jPTfSf;F kprdwpahfr; nry;yyhk; vd;w vz;zk; Nfupapdplj;jpy; ,Ue;jJ. Mdhy; Mz;ltH Nfupf;fhf ,e;jpahitj; jk; kdjpNy itj;jpUe;jhH. MfNt lhf;lH jhk]; vd;w xU kdpjidf; Nfupiar; re;jpf;Fk;gbahf mDg;gpdhH. lhf;lH jhk]; vd;gtH ,e;jpahtpy; ,Ue;jtH. ,e;jg; ngUkfdhUila tho;f;ifapd; %ykhfTk; ,Uja ghuj;jpd; %ykhfTk; mjpfkhff; ftug;gl;l Nfup ,e;jpahtpw;F kprdwpahf mtUld; $lr; nry;tjw;fhd jPHkhdk; nra;J nfhz;lhH. ghg;b];J kprdwp rq;fj;jpd; jiytUk; ,d;Dk; mtNuhL NrHe;j xU rpyUk; Nfupiaj; jq;fSila nIgj;jhYk; nghUshYk; jhq;Ftjhf mtuplj;jpy; thf;FWjp nfhLj;jdH. kprdwpahf Nfup ,e;jpahtpw;F te;jNghJ mtH 33 taJ epuk;gpatuhf ,Ue;jhH. xU rpy rpf;fy;fisf; fle;J Mokhd KiwapNy jpUg;gzp gw;wpa jpl;lq;fis mtHfs; tFj;j gpd;dH tpy;ypak; Nfup jd; FLk;gj;JlDk; lhf;lH jhkRlDk; 1793k; Mz;L I{d; khjk; 13k; Njjp fg;gy; VwpdhH. ePz;l gpuhazj;jpw;Fg; gpd;G etk;gH khjj;jpy; fy;fj;jhtpy; te;J ,wq;fpdhHfs;. NfupNahL mtH kidtpAk; ehd;F gps;isfSk;> mtUila ikj;JdpAk; ,Ue;jhHfs;. ,e;jpahtpd; kf;fis fpwp];JTf;fhf Mjhag;gLj;j Ntz;Lk; vd;w Mty; ,tHfs; ahUf;FNk ,Ue;jjhfj; njupatpy;iy. ,e;jpah nry;Yk; jd;idj; jhq;ftjw;F xU rpyH gpd;dzpapy; ,Ue;jhYk;> jd; fuj;jpy; ntF nrhw;g gzk;jhd; ,Ue;jJ. ,itfspd; mbg;gilapy; tpy;ypak; Nfup may;ehlhd ,e;jpahTf;Fr; nry;tJ VNjh Gj;jp khwhl;lk;jhd; vd;W mtuJ ez;gHfSk; cwtpdHfSk; vz;zp fyq;fpdH. Mdhy; tpy;ypak; NfupNah cWjpahd ek;gpf;ifAlDk;> Mokhd ghuj;JlDk; fhzg;gl;lhH. jdJ ePz;l flw;gpuahzj;jpNyNa tpy;ypak; Nfup tq;fhs nkhopiaf; fw;f Muk;gpj;jhH. gpwF mtH ,e;J];jhdp> ghurPfk;> khuj;jp> rk];fpUjk; Mfpa nkhopfisAk; fw;whH. ,e;jpah te;J ,wq;fpa clNdNa mtH ,e;jpa kf;fNshL tq;f nkhopapy; NgrTk; Mz;ltUila thHj;ijiag; gpurq;fpf;fTk; Ntj trdq;fis nkhopngaHf;fTk; Muk;gpj;jhH. epr;rakhfNt Mz;ltH Nfupiaj; jk;Kila caHe;j jpl;lj;jpw;fhf elj;jpdhH. nkhopfisf; fw;Fk; thQ;iria mtUf;Ff; nfhLj;jhH.

 ,e;jpahtpy; mtH tho;e;j Kjy; tUlj;jpy; mtUila FLk;gj;jpd; kf;fs; midtUNk xUtH gpd; xUtuhf Neha;tha;g;gl;ldH. mtUila mUikahd Ie;J taJ kfd; gPl;lH ,we;J Nghdhd;. ,e;J> K];yPk; NtiyMl;fs; GijFop ntl;l Kd;tutpy;iy. jd;Dila RftPdj;jpy; Vw;gl;l gytPdj;NjhL Nfup jhkhfNt GijFop ntl;bdhH. me;jr; rkaj;jpy; ,uz;LNgH mtUf;F cjtpnra;a Kd; te;jdH. ,ijf; fz;l Nfup ed;wpg; ngUf;NfhL fz;zPH tbj;jhH.

 jd; FLk;gj;ijf; fhg;ghw;w xU rhaj; njhopw;rhiyapd; nghWg;ghsuhf Nfup Ntiy nra;a Muk;gpj;jhH. mJkl;Lky;y> Ntjtrdq;fis mr;rbg;gjw;F XH mr;Rf;$lKk; Muk;gpj;jhH. tpahghuj;jpy; Vw;gl;l e];lj;jpdhy; FWfpa fhyj;jpy; Nfup jdJ Ntiyia ,oe;jhH. njhlHe;J mtuJ mr;Rf;$lKk; jPf;fpiuahdJ vd;whYk; ,r;rk;gtq;fs; Nfupia ve;j tpjj;jpYk; kde;jsHe;J Nghfr; nra;atpy;iy. mtUila cs;sj;jpy; mbf;fb vOe;j xNu Nfs;tpahdJ ehd; vt;tifapy; ,e;jpahTf;F cjtKbAk; vd;gNj.

flTs; Nfupiag; gad;gLj;jpa tpjk;

Nfup VO Mz;Lfs; fLikahf cioj;jhH. me;j Copaj;jpd; Kjy; fdpahd fpwp];D ghy; vd;Dk; xU jr;rDf;F Nfup Qhd];ehdk; nfhLj;jhH. xU fpwp];jtdhf khWtjw;F mNef ghLfisf; fle;J te;jNghjpYk; fpwp];D ghy; cz;ikahd xU fpwp];jtdhf epiyj;jpUe;jhd;. mtd; tho;f;ifapd; %ykhf ,d;Dk; gyiu fpwp];JTf;Fs; topelj;jpdhd;.

 1798k; Mz;L ,q;fpyhe;jpy; ,Ue;J ,d;Dk; ehd;F NgH te;J NfupNahL$l Copaj;jpy; gq;Fngw;whHfs;. nruk;G+H vd;w ,lj;jpy; mtHfs; xU ngupa mUl;gzp ikaj;ij Vw;gLj;jpdH. mq;fpUe;J ,e;jpahtpDila gy ghfq;fSf;Fk; nrd;W fpwp];Jitg; gpurq;fpj;jdH. NkYk; Mz; ngz;fSf;fhfj; jdpj;jdpg; gs;spfis Vw;gLj;jpdH. rpwpa Gj;jfq;fisAk; Ntj Gj;jfq;fisAk; mr;rpl xU ngupa mr;Rf;$lKk; itj;jpUe;jdH.

1800k; Mz;L nruhk;g*H fy;Y}upapidf; Ngup epWtpdhH. NkYk; XH mdhij ,y;yj;ijAk; xU njhONeha; kUj;JtkidiaAk; Vw;gLj;jpdhH. Nfup ,e;jpahtpy; Copak; nra;j 22 Mz;L fhyj;jpy; 765 NgH fpwp];JTf;fhf Mjhag;gLj;jg;gl;ldH. Nfup kupg;gjw;F Kd;dhy; ,e;jpahtpy; 26 rigfs; vOk;gpd.

 fy;fj;jhtpy; cs;s murhq;f fy;Y}upapy; Nfup tq;fnkhop Nguhrpupauhf epakpf;fg;gl;bUe;jhH. gpd;dH rk];fpUjj;ijAk; kuhl;biaAk;$l mtH mNj fy;Y}upapy; Nghjpj;jhH. 30 Mz;Lfs; Nguhrpupauhfg; gzpGupe;jhH. mtUila tUthapy; ngUk; gFjp flTSila Copaj;jpw;nfd;Nw gad;gLj;jpdhH. xU rpW gFjpiakl;Lk; jd; nryTf;fhf itj;Jf;nfhz;lhH.

 Gjpa Vw;ghL KOtJk; tq;fhs nkhopapy; 1800k; Mz;L nkhopngaHf;fg;gl;lJ. jdJ kuzj;jpw;F Kd;ghf ,tH Gjpa Vw;ghl;il ehw;gJf;F Nkyhd nkhopfspYk; > ,UgJf;F Nkyhd nkhopfspYk; KO Ntjhfkj;ijAk; nkhop ngaHj;jpUe;jhH. ,jd;gb cyfpy; %d;wpy; xU gFjp kf;fSf;F Ntjhfkj;ij nkhopngaHj;Jf; nfhLj;jhH.

 ,tuJ Ntz;LNfhSf;fpzq;f> murhq;fk; ,we;j fztNdhL mtdJ kidtpAk; capNuhL vupf;Fk; cld;fl;il VWjy; vd;Dk; gof;fj;ij vjpHj;J> xU rl;lj;ij ,aw;wp mjw;Fj; jil tpjpj;jJ. mJ kl;Lky;y> capHg;gpypf;fhf gr;rpsq; Foe;ijfisf; fq;if ejpapy; J}f;fp vwpAk; gof;fKk; jil nra;ag;gl;ljw;F ,tNu fhuzkha; ,Ue;jhH.

 ,g;gbahf khngUk; rhjidfisg; Gupe;j Nfup jd;id xU gadw;w Copad; vd;Wk; rpwpjsNt gad;gl;ltd; vd;Wk; $wpdhH. ehd; kiwe;j gpd;G fyhepjp Nfupiag; gw;wp ePq;fs; vJTk; Ngrhky; Nfupapd; ,ul;rfiug; gw;wpNa NgrNtz;Lk; vd;W jd;Dila ,Wjp ehl;fspy; jd;idr; re;jpf;f te;j ez;gH xUtuplj;jpy; $wpdhH.

 tq;f nkhopapy; Gjpa Vw;ghl;bd; 8k; gjpg;gpid mtH Kbj;j gpd;G jdJ 72k; tajpy; vd;Dila Ntiy Kbe;jJ. Mz;ltUila rpj;jj;jpw;Ff; fhj;jpUg;gijtpl ,jw;FNky; ,dp ehd; nra;tjw;F xd;Wkpy;iy vd;whH. ,U Mz;LfSf;Fg; gpwF 1834k; Mz;L I{d; khjk; mtH kupj;jhH. mtUila cly; jhk; Nerpj;j ,e;jpahtpNyNa ,isg;ghwjYf;fhf mlf;fk; nra;ag;gl;lJ. jd;Dila jha; ehl;bw;F xUKiw$l jpUk;gpr;nry;yhjgb 41 Mz;Lfs; mtH fLikahf ,e;jpahtpNyNa cioj;jhH. mtUila jpUg;gzpapd; fdpfshdJ ,d;Wk; ek;Kila fz;fhsy; fhzf;$ba epiyapy; cs;sd. ,t;tjpkha; jpwk;gl mupaNjhH Nritapidr; nra;a ,tiu ,e;jpa mUl;gzpapd; je;ij vd;W miog;gJ kpfTk; nghUj;jkhFk;.

ஹட்சன் டெய்லர்

jupj;jpuH MdhYk; mNefiu IRtupathd;fshf;fpdhH.

`l;rd; nla;yH

hudson taylor

rpWtd; `l;rd; jd; jfg;gdhH nrhy;Ytij kpf MHtj;NjhL Nfl;ghd;. mtH mtDf;Fg; gy fhupaq;fisg;gw;wp tptupj;J te;jhH. ,r;rkaj;jpy; mtHfSila Ngr;R rPd ehl;ilg;gw;wpajhf ,Ue;jJ.

cyfpd; gy ghfq;fspy; Gjpa kp\dwp ,af;fq;fs; cUthfp nray;g;gl;L te;jd. Mdhy; rPd Njrj;jpw;fhd kp\dwp jpl;lq;fs; xd;W cUthfp nray;g;gltpy;iy. Ie;J Mz;LfSf;F Kd; kupj;Jg;Nghd filrp rPd kp\dwpf;Fg; gpwG xU kp\dwpiaAk; mDg;g Kaw;rpfs; vLf;fg;gltpy;iy. ehd;F my;yJ Ie;J taJ epuk;gpa `l;rd; ,ijf; Nfs;tpg;gl;lNghJ ehd; thypgdhFk; NghJ kp\dwpahfr; rPdhTf;F nry;YNtd; vd;whH.

Muk;g gUtk;

,q;fpyhe;J Njrj;jpy; 1832k; mz;L Nk 21 k; ehs; `l;rd; nla;yH gpwe;jhH. ,tUila ngw;NwhH rpwe;j fpwp];jtHfs;. mjpf nkypthd Njhw;wKk; ngytPd ruPuKk; cila ,td;> fy;tp fw;f mDg;gg;gl;lhd;. ,uz;lhz;Lfs; fy;tp ngw;wgpd; 14 taJ tiu tPlbNyNa jq;fp fy;tp gapd;whd;. ehd;F tajpy; mtDf;F vgpnua nkhopapd; vOj;Jf;fis mtd; jfg;gd; Nghjpj;jhH. rpW tajpNyNa cyfpd; mUl;gzp Njitia czHe;jhd;.

kde;jpUk;GjYk; miog;Gk;

rpW gpuhak; Kjy; `l;rd; Mtpf;Fupa tho;f;ifapd; R+o;epiyapy; tsHf;fg;gl;lhd;. mtd; 14 tajha; ,Uf;Fk;NghJ> xU QhapW khiyapy; ifg;gpujp xd;iw thrpj;jhd;. mjd; jiyg;G vy;yhk; Kbe;jJ vd;gjhFk;. mij thrpj;jNghJ mtDf;Fs; ght czHT te;jJ. ,ul;rpg;gpd; Njitia czHe;jhd;. me;j NeuNk fpwp];J ,NaRitj; jd; nrhe;j Mj;Jk kPl;guhf Vw;Wf;nfhz;lhd;. mtDila jhahH ntspa+H nrd;W jpUk;gpaJk; jd; kPl;gpd; mDgtj;ijf; $wpdhd;. mts; jd; kfdplk; ,e;j epfo;r;rp mtSf;F Kd;Ng njupAk; vd;whs;. `l;rd; kpf Mr;rupaj;Jld; jd; jhiag; ghHj;J> vg;gb cq;fSf;Fj; njupa te;jJ vd;whd;. mts; 70> 80 iky;fSf;fg;ghy; ,Ue;jNghJ mtSila cs;sj;jpy; kfidg; gw;wpa kdghuk; Vw;gl;lJ. `l;rd; kdk; jpUk;gpa mNjehspy; mtDila jhAk; `l;rd; ,ul;rpf;fg;glNtz;Lnkd;W Cf;fkha; n[gpj;jhHfs;. jd; kfidf; fHj;jH KOtJkhf kPl;Lf;nfhz;lhH vd;w epr;rak; jdf;Fs; Vw;gLk;tiu njhlHe;J n[gpj;Jf; nfhz;Nl ,Ue;jhH. gpd; jd; kfidf; fHj;jH ,ul;rpj;jjw;fhf ed;wp nrYj;jp ];Njhj;jpuk; nra;jhH.

xU ehs; gpw;gfypy; `l;rd; jd; Ntjhfkj;ij thrpj;J gLf;ifaUNf Koq;fhypy; epd;Wnfhz;bUe;jhH. tUk;fhyj;jpy; Njtd; jk;ikg; gad;gLj;j fHj;jiu Nehf;fp Ntz;Ljy; nra;J> Mz;ltNu ehd; vd;dtpjkhd gzpia> vq;F nra;Ntz;Lnkd;W vdf;Fj; jpl;lkha; njuptpAk;. ePH vdf;Fr; nrhy;Yk;tiu ,e;j miwapypUe;J ntspNawkhl;Nld; vd;W Koq;fhypy; ,Ue;j tz;zkhf kd;whbdhH. vdf;fhf rPd Njrj;jpw;Fg; Ngh vd;W Njtd; jd;NdhL NgRtijj; jpl;ltl;lkha;f; Nfl;lhH. md;wpypUe;J mtH kdk; rPd ehl;bd; gzpapd;Nky; epiyj;J epd;wJ. Njt miog;igg; ngw;w `l;rd; nla;yH gpw;fhyj;jpy; me;j miog;igg;gw;wp xUNghJk; re;Njfpj;jjpy;iy. ,e;epfo;r;rp mtH kWgpwg;gile;j rpy khjq;fspy; eilngw;wJ.

kp\dwpg; gzpf;nfd Maj;jg;gLjy;

rPd Njrj;jpy; jpUk;gzp nra;tjw;nfd;W jd;id vy;yh tpjq;fspYk; Maj;jk; nra;Jnfhs;s Kad;whH `l;rd;. rPd Njrj;ijg;gw;wp mtUf;Ff; fpilj;j jfty;fs; midj;ijAk; Nrfupj;J thrpj;J te;jhH. Mokhd Mtpf;Fupa tho;f;ifia thQ;rpj;J gupRj;j Mtpahdtupd; epiwTf;fhf n[gpj;J jd;id xg;gilj;jhH. NjtNdhL ,t;thW XH cld;gbf;ifiar; nra;J nfhz;lhH. NjtNd> vd;id KOtJkha; Ml;nfhz;L MrPHtjpg;gPuhdhy; ckf;fhf vd;dhy; vijAk; rhjpf;f KbAk;. ckJ rpj;jj;jpw;Ff; fPo ;mike;J> ePH fhl;Lk; vijAk; ehd; nra;Ntd; vd;whH. NjtDk; mtUila ,e;j n[gj;jpw;Fg; gjpyspj;J mtUila cld;gbf;ifia cWjp nra;jhH.

kpFe;j gpuahrj;Jld; Y}f;fh vOjpd ew;nra;jp E}iy> rPd nkhopapy; fw;Wg; Gyik ngw;whH. MrpupaH cjtpapy;yhkNyNa rPd nkhopiaf; fw;Wf; nfhz;lhH. mtd; jd;id kpff; fl;Lg;ghlhd xOf;f tho;f;iff;F nfhz;L te;jhH. fbd ciog;Gk; Njf mg;gpahrKk; nra;J te;jhH. tho;f;if trjpfis cjwpj;js;sp fpilj;j jUzq;fs; vy;yhtw;wpYk; jdpikahfNt Ntiynra;J gofpdhH. mtUila jfg;gdhupd; tzpfj; njhopypy; <Lgl;bUf;Fk;NghJ> ,yj;jPd;> fpNuf;f nkhopfisAk; ,iwE}y; kUj;Jtk;> Mfpatw;iwAk; fw;Wj; NjHr;rp ngw;whH. gpw;fhyj;jpy; mtH nra;ag;NghFk; vy;yhg; gzpfSf;fhfTk; Maj;jk; nra;Jnfhz;lhH. cyfpd; kw;wg; ghfq;fspy; gzpahw;Wk; kp\dwp ,af;fq;fNshL njhlHGnfhz;L mit nray;gLk; Kiwfis mwpe;J jk; kdjpy; gjpj;Jf; nfhz;lhH.

rPdHfspd; If;fpa mikg;G gpw;fhyj;jpy; rPd ehl;bw;F ew;nra;jp mwptpf;Fk; fofkhf khwpaJ. mijg; gw;wpa KO tpguq;fisAk; njupe;J nfhz;lhH.

gj;njhd;gjhk; tajpy; kUj;Jtj;jpy; Nkw; nfhz;L gbf;f ,yz;ld; efuk; Ngha;r; NrHe;jhH. ,t;tplj;jpy; Mtpf;Fupa tho;f;ifapy; kpfTk; fl;Lg; ghlhd fbd tho;f;ifia Nkw;nfhz;lhH. tWikAk; tho;f;ifg; gpur;ridfSk;> ,tiuf; fpwp];JNthL neUq;fp thOk;gb nra;jJ. jd;dykw;w tho;f;ifg; gpur;ridfSk;> ,tiuf; fpwp];JNthL neUq;fp thOk;gb nra;jJ. jd;dy kw;w tho;f;ifia Nkw;nfhz;L jd; tUkhdj;jpy; %d;wpy; xU ghfj;ijf; fHj;jUf;Ff; fhzpf;ifahff; nfhLj;Jtpl;lhH. mr;rkaj;jpy; ,yz;ldpy; ePq;fs; mtiur; re;jpj;jpUg;gPHfshdhy;> flTs; vg;gb ,tiu kp\dwp gzpj;jsj;jpy; gad;gLj;j KbAk; vd;W Mr;rupag;gl;bUg;gPHfs;. me;ehl;fspy; mtH nkypthd Njhw;wKk;> XJq;fp thOk; RghtKk; cialtuha; ,Ue;jhH. kdpj vz;zj;jpd;gb> ,tH xU Kd;Ndhbahd kp\dwpahf khw KbAk; vd;gjw;fhd jFjp mtUf;fpy;iy. Mdhy; flTspd; thf;FWjp vd;idg; ngyg;gLj;Jfpw fpwp];JtpdhNy vy;yhtw;iwAQ; nra;a vdf;Fg; gyDz;L vd;gjhFk; (gpyp.4:13). flTs; `l;rd; nla;yiug; Nghd;w kpf ngytPd kdpjHfisNa jk;Kila kfpikf;fhf jk;Kila rpj;jj;jpy; gad;gLj;JfpwhH.

,yz;ld; efupy; `l;rd; ,Ue;j rkak;> thypg gpuhaj;jpy; mtUila tpRthrk; gykha; Nrhjpf;fg;gl;lJ. jpdKk; gpuahz fl;lzj;ijf;$l mtuhy; nfhLf;f Kbatpy;iy. mjdhy; kUj;Jt kidf;Fk; jd; tPl;bw;Fk; ele;Nj Ngha; te;jhH. xt;nthU ehSk; vl;Liky; J}uk; elf;fNtz;bajpUf;Fk;. mtUila MfhuKk; kpfTk; mw;gkhdJ. xNu nuhl;bia fhiy kw;Wk; kjpa czTf;F itj;Jf;nfhs;thH. xU rkak; tp\f;fha;r;rypdhy; kupj;Jg; Nghd xUtDila cliyg; gupNrhjid nra;Ak;NghJ mtH tpuy;fs; %ykha; tp\k; Vwp tpahjpg;gl;lhH. rPdNjrj;J Nritnay;yhk; ntWk; fdNth vd;W vz;zj;Njhd;wpaJ. MdhYk; tpRthrj;jpy; cWjpahapUe;J g+uz Rfk; ngw;whH. ,t;tpj mDgtq;fspd; %ykhf mtUila tpRthrk; mjpfkha; ngyg;gl;lJ.

rPd ehl;by; gpuNtrpj;jy;

1853k; Mz;L> nrg;nlk;gH khjk; `l;rd; nla;yH rPdhtpw;Fg; gpuahzk; nra;a fg;gy; VwpdhH. mtUila %d;W ez;gHfs; topaDg;g> mtH juprdKk; miog;Gk; ngw;w ehl;bw;Fg; gpuahzg;gl;lhH. rPd ehl;bw;F ew;nra;jp fofk; vd;w ];jhgdj;jpd; thapyhf mDg;gg;gl;lhH.

Ie;jiu khjq;fs; gpuahzj;jpw;Fg; gpd; ,Ugj;jpnuz;L tajhd ,sk; thypgdhd `l;rd;> rPd Njrj;jpy; \hq;fha; JiwKfj;jpy; te;J ,wq;fpdhH. mtUf;F thf;fspf;fg;gl;l ehl;bd; fiuapy; mtH fhyb vLj;J itj;jNghJ mtH cs;sk; g+upj;Jg; NghdhH. rPdhtpd; cs; ehl;Lg; gFjpia> RtpNr\j;jpw;nfd;W CLUtpr; nry;yg;NghfpwtH jhNd vd;W mg;NghJ mtUf;Fj; njupahJ.

rPd ehl;by; mtH fiuapwq;fpaNghJ mtiu tuNtw;f xUtUk; ,y;iy. ez;gHfSk; ahUk; ,y;iy. \hq;fha; efuk; Gul;rpahsHfspd; Ml;rpapy; ,Ug;gJ mtUf;F mg;NghJjhd; njupa te;jJ. czTg; nghUs;fspd; tpiyfs; caHe;jjhff; fhzg;gl;lJ. jdpikapy; te;J NrHe;j thypg kp\dwpf;F ,itfs; cw;rhf%l;lf; $bajhf ,y;iy. flTspd; Ngupy; mtUf;fpUe;j tpRthrNk> mtiuj; jhq;fpg; gpbj;jJ.

rPdiu fpwp];JTf;Fs; topelj;j ,tH kpfj; Jbg;gha; ,Ue;jhH. kpff; Fiwe;j nkhop mwpitf; nfhzNl rPd kf;fisr; re;jpf;fTk;> mtHfSf;F ew;nra;jp E}y;fisAk;> ifg;gpujpfisAk; nfhLf;Fk;gbahfj; jpUg;gzpapy; ,wq;fpdhH. ,t;tpjk; kf;fspilNa gofpajhy;> gy rPd thHj;ijfisf; fw;Wf;nfhs;sTk; mij cr;rupj;J ,yFthfg; NgrTk; mtuhy; Kbe;jJ. Kd;Ndhbahd kp\dwpfs; nrd;wpuhj mNef gFjpfSf;F ,tH nrd;W Copak; nra;jhH. mg;gb cs;ehl;L gpuahzq;fs; mjpf Mgj;ijf; nfhz;LtUk; epiyapy; md;W kf;fs; Gul;rp elj;jpdhHfs;.

xUKiw mtUila Copaj;jpd;NghJ XH caukhd gyrhypahd kdpjdplk; rpf;fpf;nfhz;lhH. mtd; Fbntwpapy; ,Ue;jhd;. jiyKbiag; gpbj;J mtiu ,Oj;J Kul;Lj;jdkhf mtiu elj;jpdhd;. mtNuh kaf;fkhfp tpOk; epiyikf;F te;Jtpl;lhH. vd;whYk; `l;rd; jd;id epjhdpj;Jf;nfhz;L> ,yf;fpag; Gj;jfq;fis tpepNahfpj;Jf; nfhz;UbUe;jhH. jdf;F kw;nwhU jUzk; fpilf;fhky; Nghfyhk; vd;gJ mtH vz;zk;. mtUila vjpupfs; mtH Gj;jfq;fis tpepNahfpg;gijf; fz;L mjpf NfhgKw;wdH. XH murhq;f mYtyuplk; ,Oj;Jr; nrd;wdH. me;j mjpfhup kpFe;j fhUz;akha; mtiu elj;jp> xU Gjpa Vw;ghl;il mtuplkpUe;J ngw;Wnfhz;lhH.

`l;rdpd; epidTk; kdKk; cs;ehl;Lr; rPdHfisg; Ngha; miltijNa ,yl;rpakhff; nfhz;bUe;jJ. vz;zpwe;j rPdkf;fs; cs;ehl;by; fpwp];JTf;nfd;W Mjhag;gLj;jg;glhj epiyapy; ,Ue;jdH. gTy; mbahupd; Kd;khjpupapd;gb> rpyiu ahtJ ,ul;rpf;Fk;gbahf ehd; vy;yhUf;Fk; vy;yhKkhNdd; vd;wgb ,tUk; rPd cilfis cLj;jp> rPd tho;f;if Kiwia Nkw;nfhz;lhH. ,tH rPdUila Kiwfisg; gpd;gw;wpaJ INuhg;gpaHfSf;Fk; kw;w kp\dwpfSf;Fk; gpbf;ftpy;iy. cs;ehl;L rPd kf;fis Mjhag;gLj;j Ntz;Lkhdhy;> rPdH Kiwfis mDrupg;gJ rpwe;jJ vd;W `l;rd; mwpe;jpUe;jhH. mt;tpjk; mtH mtHfs; kj;jpapy; cioj;J gyd; je;jJ. rpy khjq;fspy; kdk; jpUk;gpa Kjy; Mj;Jkhit Mjhag;gLj;jptpl;lhH.

gpur;ridfs; R+o;e;Jk; mijupag;gltpy;iy

nla;yH jd;Dila gzpapy; mbf;fb NrhHtila Nrhjpf;fg;gl;lhH. vjpHfhyk; mtUf;F ,UshfNt ,Ue;jJ. mijf; Fwpj;J vd; ghij rkkhff; fhzg;gl;lhYk; XH mb khj;jpuk; elj;jg;gl;Nld;. ehd; ,d;Dk; flTSila ntspg;gLj;JjYf;Ff; fhj;jpUf;fTk; mtiu ek;gTk; Ntz;Lk;. vy;yhk; ed;ikahfNt elf;Fk; vd;W vOjpAs;shH. mtiu mDg;gp itj;j kp\dwp ,af;fk; kpfr; rhtjhdkhf ,Ue;Jtpl;lJ. gz cjtpfs; xOq;fha; te;J gzpj;jsk; NrUtjpy;iy. ,tH l;Rq;fpq; efupy; xU kUj;Jtg; gzpj;jsj;ij epWtpdhH. mjd; %ykha; Mapuf;fzf;fhd Mj;Jkhf;fisr; re;jpf;f Kbe;jJ. gpuplb\; muR mjpfhupfs;> mtiu cs;ehl;bw;Fs; nry;yhjgb jiltpjpj;jdH. mg;gbr; nry;Ythuhdhy; xU ngupa mguhjj; njhifiaf; fl;l Ntz;Lnkd;W fl;lisapl;ldH. vjpHghuhj rPd Gul;rp rk;gtq;fs;> mtUf;F Mgj;ij tpistpf;Fk; vd;gNj mjd; Nehf;fk;. `l;rd; jd;idg; ghJfhj;Jf; nfhs;tijtpl> cs;ehl;L kf;fSf;F ew;nra;jpia mwptpg;gNj mtUf;Fg; gpujhdkha;f; fhzg;gl;lJ. mtUila kd cWjpapYk; mtH jsHe;Jtpltpy;iy. ghJfhg;igf; fhl;bYk; kf;fisf; fpwp];JTf;Fs; nfhz;L tUtJ mtH Nehf;fk;. mtUila xNu ez;gH tpy;ypak; gHz;]; vd;gtH kupj;jjpdhy;> mtUf;F mjpHr;rpAk; jhq;fKbahj JauKk; Vw;gl;lJ. mtUk; ,tiug; Nghd;w xNu Nehf;fk; cilatH. rPdHfspd; kPl;Gf;fhf jpUg;gzpapy; <Lgl;ltH. `l;rd; ,we;Jtpl;l jd; ez;gdpd; fpwp];jt If;fpaj;jpdhy; cw;rhfj;ijAk;> kd cWjpiaAk; ngw;wpUe;jhH. 1856k; Mz;L gHz;];> cs; ehl;Lg; Gul;rpf;fhuuhy; rpiw gpbf;fg;gl;Lf; nfhy;yg;gl;lhH. ,J mtUf;Fg; Ngupog;ghFk;.

vy;yh epiyikfspYk; fpwp];J `l;rd; nla;yiu top elj;jpdhH. ePq;Ngh vd;w JiwKf efupy; jd; gzpia Muk;gpf;f KbT nra;jhH. me;efupy; kUj;JtH vtUk; ,y;iy. epq;Ngh efUf;Fr; nry;Yk; topapy; mtUila Ntiyf;fhud; vy;yh cilikfisAk; jpUbf;nfhz;L mtiuj; jdpNa tpl;L Xbg;Nghdhd;. Mfhuf; FiwtpdhYk;> J}f;fkpd;ikahYk; Mahrg;gl;ltuha;> mjpff; fisg;gile;jhH. ruPuk; ngytPdg;gl;ljhy; ghij Xuj;jpy; kaq;fp tpOe;jhH. ,e;epiyapYk; mtUila gpujhd Nehf;fk;> jd;idr; Rw;wpYKs;s rPdHfisg; gw;wpaNj MFk;. jd; cilikfis ,oe;jjpdhy; Vw;gl;l jtpg;G mtuplk; fhzg;gltpy;iy. fpwp];Jit cldbahfNt gpurq;fpf;f Muk;gpj;Jtpl;lhH. epq;Ngh nkhopapy; Vw;nfdNt ,Ue;j Gjpa Vw;ghl;Lg; Gj;jfj;ij Vw;nfdNt ,Ue;j Gjpa Vw;ghl;Lg; Gj;jfj;ij kWgbAk; jpUj;jpaikj;jhH. kupah ilaH vd;w eq;ifia epq;Ngh efupy; re;jpj;J jpUkzk; nra;J nfhz;lhH. ,UtUk; NrHe;J NehAw;Nwhiuf; ftdpg;gjpYk;> rPdHfSf;Fr; RtpNr\j;ijg; gpurq;fpg;gjpYk; <Lgl;ldH. ePz;l Neug; gbg;G> cge;epahrk; nra;tJ> gy NtWgl;l gUtepiyfspy; ePz;l gpuahzq;fis Nkw;nfhs;StJ Mfpait nla;yH mtHfspd; Rfj;ijg; ngupJk; ghjpj;jJ. VO Mz;Lfs; ,iltplhj Nritf;Fg;gpd;> mtUila RftPdj;jpd; fhuzkhf ,q;fpyhe;J Njrk; nry;y Neupl;lJ. Xa;T vLf;fTk;> ew;Rfk; ngwTk; Ra Njrj;jpw;Fj; jpUk;gpr; nry;y Ntz;ba epiy Vw;gl;lJ.

rPd cs;ehl;L kp\d; ];jhgdk;

,yz;ld; efupy; mtH jq;fpapUf;Fk;NghJ> kUj;Jtf; fy;tpiaj; njhlHe;J gbj;jhH. rPd kUj;Jtf; fy;tpia njhlHe;J gbj;jhH. rPd Njr tpsf;fg; glk; xd;W mtUf;nfjpuhf Rtw;wpy; njhq;ftplg;gl;bUe;jJ. mjpy; gjpndhU jdpj;jdp gpuNjrq;fisAk;> Kg;gj;njl;L Nfhb kf;fisAk; rpj;jupj;J ,Ue;jJ. ,j;jidf; Nfhb kf;fSf;Fk; RtpNr\j;ijr; nrhy;y> xNu xU kp\dp$l md;W ,Uf;ftpy;iy. mJ mtUf;F vg;NghJk; epidt+l;LjyhfNt ,Ue;jJ. rPd Njrj;jpd; Njitfis ifg;gpujpfspd; thapyhfTk;> rpW gpuRuq;fshfTk; vOjp te;jhH. ,e;jg; gjpndhU gpuNjrq;fspy; gzp Gupa ,Ugj;Jehd;F kp\dwpfSf;fhf n[gpj;J te;jhH. ,uz;L ehs; fopj;J xU rpW njhifia tpRthrj;jpdhNy tq;fpapy; KjyPL nra;jhH. rPd cs;ehl;L kp\d; ];jhgdj;jpd; Ngupy;> me;jj; njhif itg;Gj; njhifahf ,Ug;gpy; Nghlg;gl;lJ. tpRthrj;jpd; tpisthf ,Ug;gpy; rPd cs;ehl;L kp\d; ];jhgdk; md;W ehl;lg;ngw;wJ. rpwpa njhifNahL Vuhskhd flTspd; thf;Fj;jj;jq;fSk; md;W kp\d; ];jhgdj;jpw;fhf KjyPL nra;ag;gl;lJ vd;W `l;rd; nrhd;dhH.

Njtd; mtUila kd;whl;LfSf;Fg; gjpy; mUspdhH. gjpndhU khjq;fl;Fg; gpd;dH> gjpdhW kp\dwpfNshL rPd ehl;bw;F `l;rd; gazkhdhH. mtNuhL nrd;w gjpdhW kp\dwpkhHfSk; mtiug; NghyNt KOtJkha; fHj;jiur; rhHe;J jpUg;gzpf;F xg;gilj;jtHfs;. Njt thf;Ffis ek;gp Vw;Wf;nfhz;L jq;fisj; jj;jk; nra;jpUe;jdH. xUtUf;fhfpYk; epr;rakhd khjr; rk;gsk; fpilf;Fk; vd;w cWjpapy;iy. ve;j ,lj;jpy; gzp nra;ag; NghfpNwhk;> mt;tplj;jpd; epiyik ahJ vd;W mwpahj epiyapy; gazkhapdH. rPd ehl;by; mtHfis tuNtw;f xUtUk; ,y;iy. cs;ehl;Lg; gFjpf;Fr; nry;yNt midtUk; jPHkhdpj;jpUe;jdH. cd; ehl;by;> ntspehl;ltUf;Fg; gyj;j vjpHg;G ,Ue;J te;jJ. fg;gy; gpuahzj;jpd;NghJ `l;rd; FOtpdH Mw;wpa jpUkiw ciuahly;fs; %ykha; ,UgJ fg;gy; rpg;ge;jpfs; fpwp];Jitj; jq;fs; nrhe;j ,ul;rfuhf vw;Wf;nfhz;ldH. fg;gypd; nkhj;j CopaHfs; Kg;gj;J ehd;F NgH. fly; fle;J nry;tjhy; xU k\dwp cUthFtjpy;iy. jd; tPl;bYk;> Raehl;bYk; fpwp];Jtpd; Nritapy; gaDs;stuha; ,Uf;fkhl;lhH vd;W `l;rd; mbf;fb $WthH.

rPd ehl;il kWKiw te;jiljy;

\hq;fha; JiwKfj;jpy; te;J NrHe;j midj;J kp\dwpfSk;> capH Mgj;JfSf;Fg; gag;glhky; cs;ehl;bw;Fs; Nghfj; jPHkhdpj;jdH. ,e;jf; FOtpw;F ,sik kpf;f nla;yH> jsgjpahf jiyik Vw;W elj;jpr; nrd;whH. mNefk; Kiw mtHfSf;F jq;Fk; trjpNah Vw;w MfhuNkh ,Ue;jjpy;iy. fHj;jiu ek;gpdgbapdhy; mtNu mtHfSila Njit vy;yhtw;iwAk; re;jpj;jhH. rpW gps;isf;nfhj;j vspa tpRthrNk> nla;yH mtHfspd; ntw;wpapd; ,ufrpakha; ,Ue;jJ. xt;nthU gpur;ridiaAk; tpRthrj;jpdhy; Nkw;nfhz;L ntw;wpailtNj> fHj;jUila gps;isf;Fg; gyKk; Cl;lKk; nfhLf;ff;$ba ty;yikahf khWfpwJ vd;W `l;rd; nrhy;YthH.

,UgJ Mz;LfSf;Fg; gpd;dH> rPd cs;ehl;L kp\d; ];jhgdk; kpfg;ngupa mstpy; tsHe;J rpwg;ghd gzpGupe;jJ. ,UE}w;W ,Ugj;ije;J kp\dwpfSk;> Ik;gj;njhd;gJ Myaq;fSk;> Mapuj;J vOE}W tpRthrpfisAk; nfhz;l ];jhgdkha; tpsq;fpw;W. gapw;rp epiyaq;fs; Muk;gpf;fg;gl;ld. Mapuf;fzf;fhd ifg;gpujpfSk;> rpW Gj;jfq;fSk; rPd kf;fSf;F tpepNahfpf;fg;gl;ld. nja;tj;jpUg;gzpapy; ,og;GfSk; cz;L. `l;rd; nla;yUila kidtpAk; %d;W kf;fSk; ,we;J NghapdH. mtUila kidtp gd;dpuz;liu Mz;Lfs; mtUf;F kpf cjtpahf ,Ue;jts;> fyhuh tpahjpapdhy; kupj;Jg; Nghdhs;. mtH mjpfkha; Nerpj;j mUik kfs; ,we;jNghJ> vq;fs; ,jaq;fs; ntbj;Jr; rpjWfpd;wd. ,e;j mDgtk; vy;yhtw;wpw;Fk; Nkyhf caHe;J epw;fpd;wd. vq;fs; ,NaR vy;yhtw;iwAk; ed;wha;r; nra;jhH vd;Wk;> mtH kidtp ,we;jNghJ> ehNdh jdpj;J tplg;gl;ltd; my;y. Kd;idf; fhl;bYk; fHj;jH vdf;F mjpf neUf;fkhf cs;shH vd;Wk; vOjp itj;jhH. `l;rd; ,g;gbg;gl;l ngUk; ,og;Gfisf; fpwp];Jtpd; epkpj;jk; ijupaj;NjhL jhq;fpf;nfhz;lhH.

rPd ehl;bd; jpUg;gzpj; Njitfis vy;yhk; mtH nrd;w ,lnky;yhk; kf;fSf;F vLj;Jr; nrhy;YthH. Mdhy; xUNghJk; gzk; jhUq;fs; vd;W Nfl;lNj ,y;iy. mtUf;Fg; gzNkh> CopaHfNsh Njitg;gl;lNghnjy;yhk;> fHj;jUf;Nf jk; Ntz;Ljy;fisj; njupag;gLj;jpdhH. rPd cs;ehl;L kp\d; gzpf;nfd;W fhzpf;ifnaLf;f mtH xUNghJk; mDkjpj;jNj ,y;iy. mtUila jpl;lkhd ,e;jf; nfhs;isapd; mbg;gilapy;jhd;> kp\d; ];jhgdk; ,aq;fp te;jJ. flTSf;F kfpikiaf; nfhz;L tUtNj mtuJ Nehf;fk;.

rPd NjrNk vg;NghJk; mtH epidT

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