வில்லியம் கேரி

tpy;ypak; Nfup

carey

(1760 - 1834)

tpy;ypak; Nfup Ntj Gj;jfj;ijg; gy nkhopfspy; nkhopngaHj;J> cyfpd; %d;wpy; xU gFjpf;Ff; nfhLj;J cjtpaH. ,d;iwa kprdwp ,af;fq;fspd; je;ij vd;w epiyia mile;jtH tpy;ypak; Nfup vd;W mtiu mtuJ rpW tPl;by; nrUg;G nrg;gdpLk; thypgdhff; fz;ltHfs; vtUk; vjpHghHj;jpUf;fkhl;lhHfs;.

rpWtdhd Nfup

tpy;ypak; Nfup rpWtdhf ,Uf;Fk;NghNj jd;Dila tplhKaw;rpf;F XH vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf tpsq;fpdhH. xU jPur; nraiy nra;a Muk;gpj;J mij tplhJ njhlHe;J nra;J Kbg;ghH. jPur;nray;fspy; kpfTk; tpUg;gk; nfhz;ltH. xUKiw xU kuj;jpd; cr;rpapy; ,Uf;Fk; FUtpf;$l;il Muha;e;J ghHg;gjw;fhf mth; kuj;jpy; VwpaNghJ mtH tOf;fp fPNo tpOe;jhH. fuk; fhy;fspy; mbgl;l mtUf;Ff; fl;Lfs; Nghl;L mtiu mtuJ jhahH gLf;ifapNy gLf;f itj;jhH. Mdhy; rpWtdhd NfupapdhNy Njhy;tpia Vw;Wf;nfhs;sKbatpy;iy. mtH kWgbAk; nrd;W kuj;jpy; Vw me;jf; FUtpapd; $l;ilf; ifapy; nfhz;LtUtij mtH jhahH fz;lhH.

tpy;ypak; tpisahl;Lg; Nghl;bfspYk;> gpuahzk; nra;tjpYk; mjpf tpUk;gk; nfhz;ltH. Gjpa epyg; gFjpfisf; fz;L gpbf;Fk; Muha;r;rpahsuhd nfhyk;g]; vd;gtiuj; jd; tho;f;ifapd; ,yl;rpaj;jiytuhff; nfhz;L mtiug; gw;wp Nfup Gfo;e;J NgRtJz;L. MfNt mtUld; goFk; rpWtHfs; mtUf;F nfhyk;g]; vd;W gl;lg;ngaH ,l;L mioj;jdH. ,aw;ifia kfpTk; Nerpf;Fk; rpWtdhf ,Ue;jhH. Mq;fhq;Nf jhd; fhZk; gwitfs;> g+r;rpfs;> nrbfs; Kjypatw;iw vLj;J mitfis Muha;e;J ghHg;gJk; cz;L. Mdhy; mtH jPur; nray;fisAk; gpuahzq;fisAk; Fwpj;j Gj;jfq;fis kpfTk; tpOk;gpg; gbg;gtuhf ,Ue;jhH. gy nkhopfisg; gbj;Jf;nfhs;tjpNy tpUg;gKk; mf;fiwAk; fhl;Lgtuhf Nfup tpsq;fpdhH. rpWtdhf ,Uf;Fk;NghNj yj;jPd; nkhopia mtH gbf;f Muk;gpj;Jtpl;lhH.

nrUg;Gj; ijf;Fk; nrk;khd; Nfup

gd;dpuz;L taJ rpWtdha; ,Uf;Fk;NghJ Nfup jd; gs;spg;gbg;ig epWj;jptpl;lhH. mtH gjpd;dhd;F tajhf ,Uf;Fk;NghJ mtUila je;ijahH nrUg;Gj;ijf;Fk; nrk;khd; xUtUf;F cjtpahsdhf Nfupia mkHj;jpdhH. me;j ehl;fspNy Nfupf;F khHf;f rk;ge;jkhd fhupaq;fspy; rpWJ tpUg;gk; ,y;yhjpUe;jJ. mtH XH Myaj;jpd; ghlfH FOtpNy NrHe;J ghly;fisg; ghbdhH. xU rpwe;j fpwp];j FLk;gj;jpNy mtH gpwe;jpUe;jhH vd;gnjy;yhk; cz;ikjhd;> Mdhy; jdJ ghlfH ez;gHfSld; NrHe;J gy rkak; jtwhf MizapLtJ> ngha; nrhy;tJ> fPo;j;jukhd fijfisg; NgRtJ ,itfspy; mtH tpUg;gk; fhl;bdhH. thHL vd;Dk; thypgd; mtNuhL rf gapw;rpahsdhf nrUg;Gf; filapy; gapw;rp ngw;W te;jhd;. thHbd; Mokhd mirf;fKbahj fpwp];jt IPtpaj;jpd; ew;rhl;rp tpy;ypak; Nfupapidj; njhl;lJ. tpy;ypak; mt;tg;NghJ nIgpf;f Muk;gpj;jhH. xUKiw tpy;ypak; jd;Dila vIkhddpd; ehzak; xd;wpid vLj;Jr; nrytopj;Jtpl;L mjw;Fg; gjpyhf XH cile;j nry;yhj ehzaj;ij itj;Jtpl;lhH. Mdhy; mtUila vIkhd; mijf; fz;Lgpbj;J vy;yhUf;Fk; Kd;ghf mtiu mtkhdg;gLj;jptpl;lhH. ,e;j mDgtk; Nfup jd; ,jaj;ij Mz;ltUf;F xg;Gf;nfhLf;f elj;jpaJ. tpy;ypak; ghtj;ijf; Fwpj;J Mokhf czHj;jg;gl;lhH. ,ij mwpe;j mtUila NghjfH mtiu mioj;J ,NaR fpwp];Jitj; jd; tho;f;ifapy; Vw;Wf;nfhs;tjpd; %ykhf kl;LNk mtH gps;isahf KbAk; vd;gij mtUf;F tptupj;jhH. mJ kl;Lky;y> ey;y gps;isahf tho;f;if elj;JtNjh> my;yJ xOq;fhf Myaj;jpw;Fr; nry;YtNjh xUtid fpwp];Jtpd; gps;isahf khw;whJ vd;gijAk; mtUf;Fj; njspthf tptupj;jhH. ,itfs; vy;yhtw;iwAk; Nfl;f Nfl;f mtH kpfTk; Mokhfj; njhlg;gl;lgbapdhNy kpfTk; mjpfkhff; fjwp mOjhH. kdNtjid mile;J mtH Koq;fhypy; epd;W fHj;juhfpa ,NaR fpwp];JNt> vd;Dila cs;sj;jpy; te;J vd;Dila ghtq;fs; vy;yhtw;iwAk; fOtpaUSk;. ,g;NghJjhNd ehd; ck;ik Vw;Wf;nfhs;s Maj;jkhf ,Uf;fpNwd; vd;W $wpdhH. mg;NghNj ,NaR fpwp];J mtUila ,Ujaj;jpy; te;jhH. mtH GJ rpU];bahf khw;wg;gl;lhH.

tpy;ypak; Gjpa nrUg;Gfisj; ijg;gJk; gioaitfisg; gOJ ghHg;gJkhd NtiyNahL epy;yhky; ,q;fpyhe;J Njrj;jpy; cs;s Nkhy;ld; vd;Dk; gl;lzj;jpd; xU rpw;whyaj;jpy; Nghjfuhff; gzp Vw;whH. ,NaR fpwp];Jtpd; ,uhI;aj;ij tpuptilar; nra;tNj vd;Dila Kjd;ikahd gzp vd;Wk;> ehd; nrUg;Gfisr; nrg;gdpLtJk;> nrUg;Gfisj; ijg;gJk; vd;Dila nrytpd; Njitfisg; g+Hj;jp nra;tjw;F kl;LNk vd;Wk; mtH mbf;fb $wpf;nfhs;tJ cz;L. mtH nrUg;Gfisj; ijj;Jf; nfhz;bUf;Fk;NghJ mth gf;fj;jpNy xU Gj;jfj;ij itj;J thrpj;Jf;nfhz;bUg;ghH. ,t;tpjkhf mth fpNuf;F> ,yj;jPd; nkhopfisf; fw;whH. ,J kl;Lky;yhky; mtH vgpnuA > gpnuQ;R> ,j;jhyp> lr;R mfpa nkhopfisAk; fw;gjw;fhf 15 fpNyhkPl;lH J}uk; elf;fTk; Kd;te;jhH.

Nghjfuhd tpy;ypak;

Nfg;ld; Ff; vd;gtUila flw;gazq;fs; vd;W nrhy;yg;gLk; xU Gj;jfj;ij tpy;ypak; Nfup gbj;jjd; %ykhf njd;fly; jPTfspy; mNefkhapuk; kf;fSf;F ew;nra;jp mwptpf;fg;glNtz;ba mtrpaj;ij me;ehl;fspy; czHe;jhH. jhNd xU ngupa cyfg;glj;ij tiue;J> mijr; nrUg;G ijf;Fk; jd;Dila gl;liwapd; Rtw;wpNy khl;b itj;J> mjpy; cs;s xt;nthU Njrj;jpYk; kf;fs; njhifiaAk; me;j kf;fisg; gw;wpa Fwpg;GfisAk; mjpNy Fwpj;J itj;jpUe;jhH. xt;nthU ehs; fhiyapYk; mtH ,j; Njrg;glj;jpw;F Kd;ghf Koq;fhy;gbapl;L> mjpNy cs;s fpwp];J my;yhj Njrq;fspd; kf;fSf;fhf nIgpf;f Muk;gpj;jhH. ,t;tpjkhf nIgpg;gjd; %yk; Mz;ltUila ew;nra;jpia vLj;Jr; nry;yNtz;Lnkd;w xU epue;jukhd ghuk; mtUila cs;sj;jpy; vOe;jJ. ,NaR fpwp];Jitg; gw;wp mwpahj kf;fSf;fhf nIgpf;f xU nIgf;FOit Nfup mikj;jhH. NkYk; kprdwp gzpfSf;fhd Njitfs; gw;wp jd; cld; CopaHfSld; gfpHe;J nfhz;lhH. ,itfisg; gw;wp mtH njhlHe;J vOjpdhH. XH CopaHfSila $l;lj;jpNy Nfup ghuk; epiwe;j cs;sj;NjhL vOe;J epd;W Mz;ltiu mwpahjtHfs; kj;jpapNy RtpNrrk; mwptpf;fg;glNtz;baJ ekJ flik. mij ehk; fl;lhakhfg; guprPypf;fNtz;Lk; vd;W mtH nrhd;dNghJ> xU taJ KjpHe;j CopaH vOe;J kpfTk; rj;jkhf thypgNd eP cl;fhU> flTs; kf;fis kdk; jpUk;gr; nra;aNtz;Lnkd;why; ek;Kila cjtpapd;wpNa mtuhy; mijg; gupg+uzkhfr; nra;KbAk; vd;W kpfTk; Nfhgkhff; $wpdhH. ,jd; %ykhf jd; cld; CopaHfSf;F Kd;ghf Nfup kpfTk; mjpfkhf mtkjpf;fg;gl;lhH. ,Ue;jhYk; jd; ,sik njhl;Nl mtH vLj;j ve;jf; fhupaj;ijAk; njhlHe;J Kbf;f Kaw;rp nra;jijg; NghyNt ,e;j Kaw;rpiaAk; mtH tpltpy;iy. njhlHe;J Kaw;rpj;jhH. 1791k; Mz;L tpy;ypak; Nfup Nghjfuhf mgpNrfk; nra;ag;gl;lhH. mtUila cld; NghjfHfs; kj;jpapy; tpy;ypak; Nfup kpfr; rpwe;j Kiwapy; kjpj;Jg; Nghw;wg;gl;lhH. ghg;b];J rig NghjfHfSila Mz;L epiwTf; $l;lk; xd;wpy; 1792k; Mz;by; tpy;ypak; Nfup Mz;ltUila nra;jpiaf; nfhLg;gjw;fhf miof;fg;gl;lhH. flTsplkpUe;J ngupa fhupaq;fis vjpHghH. flTSf;fhf ngupa fhupaq;fis rhjpf;fg;ghH vd;gJ mtUila nra;jpapd; ikakhf ,Ue;jJ. ,e;jf; fUj;Nj mtH tho;f;ifapy; KOtjpYk; Fwpf;NfhshfTk; khwptpl;lJ. ,e;jf; $l;lj;jpd; tpisthf ghg;b];J kprdwp rq;fk; Muk;gpf;fg;gl;lJ. mr;rq;fk; cldbahf xU kprdwpia ntspehl;Lf;F mDg;Gtjw;F Kd;te;jJ.

,e;jpahtpy; tpy;ypak; Nfup

Nfup xU kprdwpahf nry;tjw;fhd top ,g;NghJ jpwe;Jtpl;lJ. Mdhy; vq;F kprdwpahfr; nry;tJ vd;w Nfs;tp vOe;jJ. Nkw;F Mg;gpupf;fh my;yJ njd;fly; jPTfSf;F kprdwpahfr; nry;yyhk; vd;w vz;zk; Nfupapdplj;jpy; ,Ue;jJ. Mdhy; Mz;ltH Nfupf;fhf ,e;jpahitj; jk; kdjpNy itj;jpUe;jhH. MfNt lhf;lH jhk]; vd;w xU kdpjidf; Nfupiar; re;jpf;Fk;gbahf mDg;gpdhH. lhf;lH jhk]; vd;gtH ,e;jpahtpy; ,Ue;jtH. ,e;jg; ngUkfdhUila tho;f;ifapd; %ykhfTk; ,Uja ghuj;jpd; %ykhfTk; mjpfkhff; ftug;gl;l Nfup ,e;jpahtpw;F kprdwpahf mtUld; $lr; nry;tjw;fhd jPHkhdk; nra;J nfhz;lhH. ghg;b];J kprdwp rq;fj;jpd; jiytUk; ,d;Dk; mtNuhL NrHe;j xU rpyUk; Nfupiaj; jq;fSila nIgj;jhYk; nghUshYk; jhq;Ftjhf mtuplj;jpy; thf;FWjp nfhLj;jdH. kprdwpahf Nfup ,e;jpahtpw;F te;jNghJ mtH 33 taJ epuk;gpatuhf ,Ue;jhH. xU rpy rpf;fy;fisf; fle;J Mokhd KiwapNy jpUg;gzp gw;wpa jpl;lq;fis mtHfs; tFj;j gpd;dH tpy;ypak; Nfup jd; FLk;gj;JlDk; lhf;lH jhkRlDk; 1793k; Mz;L I{d; khjk; 13k; Njjp fg;gy; VwpdhH. ePz;l gpuhazj;jpw;Fg; gpd;G etk;gH khjj;jpy; fy;fj;jhtpy; te;J ,wq;fpdhHfs;. NfupNahL mtH kidtpAk; ehd;F gps;isfSk;> mtUila ikj;JdpAk; ,Ue;jhHfs;. ,e;jpahtpd; kf;fis fpwp];JTf;fhf Mjhag;gLj;j Ntz;Lk; vd;w Mty; ,tHfs; ahUf;FNk ,Ue;jjhfj; njupatpy;iy. ,e;jpah nry;Yk; jd;idj; jhq;ftjw;F xU rpyH gpd;dzpapy; ,Ue;jhYk;> jd; fuj;jpy; ntF nrhw;g gzk;jhd; ,Ue;jJ. ,itfspd; mbg;gilapy; tpy;ypak; Nfup may;ehlhd ,e;jpahTf;Fr; nry;tJ VNjh Gj;jp khwhl;lk;jhd; vd;W mtuJ ez;gHfSk; cwtpdHfSk; vz;zp fyq;fpdH. Mdhy; tpy;ypak; NfupNah cWjpahd ek;gpf;ifAlDk;> Mokhd ghuj;JlDk; fhzg;gl;lhH. jdJ ePz;l flw;gpuahzj;jpNyNa tpy;ypak; Nfup tq;fhs nkhopiaf; fw;f Muk;gpj;jhH. gpwF mtH ,e;J];jhdp> ghurPfk;> khuj;jp> rk];fpUjk; Mfpa nkhopfisAk; fw;whH. ,e;jpah te;J ,wq;fpa clNdNa mtH ,e;jpa kf;fNshL tq;f nkhopapy; NgrTk; Mz;ltUila thHj;ijiag; gpurq;fpf;fTk; Ntj trdq;fis nkhopngaHf;fTk; Muk;gpj;jhH. epr;rakhfNt Mz;ltH Nfupiaj; jk;Kila caHe;j jpl;lj;jpw;fhf elj;jpdhH. nkhopfisf; fw;Fk; thQ;iria mtUf;Ff; nfhLj;jhH.

 ,e;jpahtpy; mtH tho;e;j Kjy; tUlj;jpy; mtUila FLk;gj;jpd; kf;fs; midtUNk xUtH gpd; xUtuhf Neha;tha;g;gl;ldH. mtUila mUikahd Ie;J taJ kfd; gPl;lH ,we;J Nghdhd;. ,e;J> K];yPk; NtiyMl;fs; GijFop ntl;l Kd;tutpy;iy. jd;Dila RftPdj;jpy; Vw;gl;l gytPdj;NjhL Nfup jhkhfNt GijFop ntl;bdhH. me;jr; rkaj;jpy; ,uz;LNgH mtUf;F cjtpnra;a Kd; te;jdH. ,ijf; fz;l Nfup ed;wpg; ngUf;NfhL fz;zPH tbj;jhH.

 jd; FLk;gj;ijf; fhg;ghw;w xU rhaj; njhopw;rhiyapd; nghWg;ghsuhf Nfup Ntiy nra;a Muk;gpj;jhH. mJkl;Lky;y> Ntjtrdq;fis mr;rbg;gjw;F XH mr;Rf;$lKk; Muk;gpj;jhH. tpahghuj;jpy; Vw;gl;l e];lj;jpdhy; FWfpa fhyj;jpy; Nfup jdJ Ntiyia ,oe;jhH. njhlHe;J mtuJ mr;Rf;$lKk; jPf;fpiuahdJ vd;whYk; ,r;rk;gtq;fs; Nfupia ve;j tpjj;jpYk; kde;jsHe;J Nghfr; nra;atpy;iy. mtUila cs;sj;jpy; mbf;fb vOe;j xNu Nfs;tpahdJ ehd; vt;tifapy; ,e;jpahTf;F cjtKbAk; vd;gNj.

flTs; Nfupiag; gad;gLj;jpa tpjk;

Nfup VO Mz;Lfs; fLikahf cioj;jhH. me;j Copaj;jpd; Kjy; fdpahd fpwp];D ghy; vd;Dk; xU jr;rDf;F Nfup Qhd];ehdk; nfhLj;jhH. xU fpwp];jtdhf khWtjw;F mNef ghLfisf; fle;J te;jNghjpYk; fpwp];D ghy; cz;ikahd xU fpwp];jtdhf epiyj;jpUe;jhd;. mtd; tho;f;ifapd; %ykhf ,d;Dk; gyiu fpwp];JTf;Fs; topelj;jpdhd;.

 1798k; Mz;L ,q;fpyhe;jpy; ,Ue;J ,d;Dk; ehd;F NgH te;J NfupNahL$l Copaj;jpy; gq;Fngw;whHfs;. nruk;G+H vd;w ,lj;jpy; mtHfs; xU ngupa mUl;gzp ikaj;ij Vw;gLj;jpdH. mq;fpUe;J ,e;jpahtpDila gy ghfq;fSf;Fk; nrd;W fpwp];Jitg; gpurq;fpj;jdH. NkYk; Mz; ngz;fSf;fhfj; jdpj;jdpg; gs;spfis Vw;gLj;jpdH. rpwpa Gj;jfq;fisAk; Ntj Gj;jfq;fisAk; mr;rpl xU ngupa mr;Rf;$lKk; itj;jpUe;jdH.

1800k; Mz;L nruhk;g*H fy;Y}upapidf; Ngup epWtpdhH. NkYk; XH mdhij ,y;yj;ijAk; xU njhONeha; kUj;JtkidiaAk; Vw;gLj;jpdhH. Nfup ,e;jpahtpy; Copak; nra;j 22 Mz;L fhyj;jpy; 765 NgH fpwp];JTf;fhf Mjhag;gLj;jg;gl;ldH. Nfup kupg;gjw;F Kd;dhy; ,e;jpahtpy; 26 rigfs; vOk;gpd.

 fy;fj;jhtpy; cs;s murhq;f fy;Y}upapy; Nfup tq;fnkhop Nguhrpupauhf epakpf;fg;gl;bUe;jhH. gpd;dH rk];fpUjj;ijAk; kuhl;biaAk;$l mtH mNj fy;Y}upapy; Nghjpj;jhH. 30 Mz;Lfs; Nguhrpupauhfg; gzpGupe;jhH. mtUila tUthapy; ngUk; gFjp flTSila Copaj;jpw;nfd;Nw gad;gLj;jpdhH. xU rpW gFjpiakl;Lk; jd; nryTf;fhf itj;Jf;nfhz;lhH.

 Gjpa Vw;ghL KOtJk; tq;fhs nkhopapy; 1800k; Mz;L nkhopngaHf;fg;gl;lJ. jdJ kuzj;jpw;F Kd;ghf ,tH Gjpa Vw;ghl;il ehw;gJf;F Nkyhd nkhopfspYk; > ,UgJf;F Nkyhd nkhopfspYk; KO Ntjhfkj;ijAk; nkhop ngaHj;jpUe;jhH. ,jd;gb cyfpy; %d;wpy; xU gFjp kf;fSf;F Ntjhfkj;ij nkhopngaHj;Jf; nfhLj;jhH.

 ,tuJ Ntz;LNfhSf;fpzq;f> murhq;fk; ,we;j fztNdhL mtdJ kidtpAk; capNuhL vupf;Fk; cld;fl;il VWjy; vd;Dk; gof;fj;ij vjpHj;J> xU rl;lj;ij ,aw;wp mjw;Fj; jil tpjpj;jJ. mJ kl;Lky;y> capHg;gpypf;fhf gr;rpsq; Foe;ijfisf; fq;if ejpapy; J}f;fp vwpAk; gof;fKk; jil nra;ag;gl;ljw;F ,tNu fhuzkha; ,Ue;jhH.

 ,g;gbahf khngUk; rhjidfisg; Gupe;j Nfup jd;id xU gadw;w Copad; vd;Wk; rpwpjsNt gad;gl;ltd; vd;Wk; $wpdhH. ehd; kiwe;j gpd;G fyhepjp Nfupiag; gw;wp ePq;fs; vJTk; Ngrhky; Nfupapd; ,ul;rfiug; gw;wpNa NgrNtz;Lk; vd;W jd;Dila ,Wjp ehl;fspy; jd;idr; re;jpf;f te;j ez;gH xUtuplj;jpy; $wpdhH.

 tq;f nkhopapy; Gjpa Vw;ghl;bd; 8k; gjpg;gpid mtH Kbj;j gpd;G jdJ 72k; tajpy; vd;Dila Ntiy Kbe;jJ. Mz;ltUila rpj;jj;jpw;Ff; fhj;jpUg;gijtpl ,jw;FNky; ,dp ehd; nra;tjw;F xd;Wkpy;iy vd;whH. ,U Mz;LfSf;Fg; gpwF 1834k; Mz;L I{d; khjk; mtH kupj;jhH. mtUila cly; jhk; Nerpj;j ,e;jpahtpNyNa ,isg;ghwjYf;fhf mlf;fk; nra;ag;gl;lJ. jd;Dila jha; ehl;bw;F xUKiw$l jpUk;gpr;nry;yhjgb 41 Mz;Lfs; mtH fLikahf ,e;jpahtpNyNa cioj;jhH. mtUila jpUg;gzpapd; fdpfshdJ ,d;Wk; ek;Kila fz;fhsy; fhzf;$ba epiyapy; cs;sd. ,t;tjpkha; jpwk;gl mupaNjhH Nritapidr; nra;a ,tiu ,e;jpa mUl;gzpapd; je;ij vd;W miog;gJ kpfTk; nghUj;jkhFk;.